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Low-protein formulas with alpha-lactalbumin-enriched or glycomacropeptide-reduced whey: effects on growth, nutrient intake and protein metabolism during early infancy
Department of Clinical Sciences, Pediatrics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
Department of Nutrition, University of California, CA, Davis, United States.
Arla Foods Ingredients Group P/S, Viby J, Denmark.
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2023 (English)In: Nutrients, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 15, no 4, article id 1010Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Protein intake is higher in formula-fed than in breast-fed infants during infancy, which may lead to an increased risk of being overweight. Applying alpha-lactalbumin (α-lac)-enriched whey or casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP)-reduced whey to infant formula may enable further reduction of formula protein by improving the amino acid profile. Growth, nutrient intake, and protein metabolites were evaluated in a randomized, prospective, double-blinded intervention trial where term infants received standard formula (SF:2.2 g protein/100 kcal; n = 83) or low-protein formulas with α-lac-enriched whey (α-lac-EW;1.75 g protein/100 kcal; n = 82) or CGMP-reduced whey (CGMP-RW;1.76 g protein/100 kcal; n = 80) from 2 to 6 months. Breast-fed infants (BF; n = 83) served as reference. Except between 4 and 6 months, when weight gain did not differ between α-lac-EW and BF (p = 0.16), weight gain was higher in all formula groups compared to BF. Blood urea nitrogen did not differ between low-protein formula groups and BF during intervention, but was lower than in SF. Essential amino acids were similar or higher in α-lac-EW and CGMP-RW compared to BF. Conclusion: Low-protein formulas enriched with α-lac-enriched or CGMP-reduced whey supports adequate growth, with more similar weight gain in α-lac-enriched formula group and BF, and with metabolic profiles closer to that of BF infants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023. Vol. 15, no 4, article id 1010
Keywords [en]
alpha-lactalbumin, amino acids, CGMP, energetic efficiency, infant formula, infant growth, low protein, obesity, protein metabolism, protein quality
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-205491DOI: 10.3390/nu15041010ISI: 000940985900001PubMedID: 36839368Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85148898752OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-205491DiVA, id: diva2:1743225
Available from: 2023-03-14 Created: 2023-03-14 Last updated: 2024-04-10Bibliographically approved

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Hernell, Olle

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