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Understanding the COVID-19 vaccine policy terrain in Ontario Canada: a policy analysis of the actors, content, processes, and context
School of Public Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Waterloo, ON, Waterloo, Canada.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. School of Public Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Waterloo, ON, Waterloo, Canada; School of Pharmacy, University of Waterloo, ON, Kitchener, Canada.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6833-7601
Lincoln International Institute for Rural Health, University of Lincoln, Brayford Way, Brayford, Pool, Lincoln, United Kingdom.
School of Public Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Waterloo, ON, Waterloo, Canada.
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2023 (English)In: Vaccines, E-ISSN 2076-393X, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 782Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

(1) Background: Canada had a unique approach to COVID-19 vaccine policy making. The objective of this study was to understand the evolution of COVID-19 vaccination policies in Ontario, Canada, using the policy triangle framework.

(2) Methods: We searched government websites and social media to identify COVID-19 vaccination policies in Ontario, Canada, which were posted between 1 October 2020, and 1 December 2021. We used the policy triangle framework to explore the policy actors, content, processes, and context.

(3) Results: We reviewed 117 Canadian COVID-19 vaccine policy documents. Our review found that federal actors provided guidance, provincial actors made actionable policy, and community actors adapted policy to local contexts. The policy processes aimed to approve and distribute vaccines while continuously updating policies. The policy content focused on group prioritization and vaccine scarcity issues such as the delayed second dose and the mixed vaccine schedules. Finally, the policies were made in the context of changing vaccine science, global and national vaccine scarcity, and a growing awareness of the inequitable impacts of pandemics on specific communities.

(4) Conclusions: We found that the triad of vaccine scarcity, evolving efficacy and safety data, and social inequities all contributed to the creation of vaccine policies that were difficult to efficiently communicate to the public. A lesson learned is that the need for dynamic policies must be balanced with the complexity of effective communication and on-the-ground delivery of care.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023. Vol. 11, no 4, article id 782
Keywords [en]
Canada, COVID-19 vaccination policies, health policy, Ontario, policy analysis, policy triangle framework
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-207873DOI: 10.3390/vaccines11040782ISI: 000978188900001PubMedID: 37112694Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85153732500OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-207873DiVA, id: diva2:1755762
Available from: 2023-05-09 Created: 2023-05-09 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved

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Tetui, Moses

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