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The clinical use of stress echocardiography in chronic coronary syndromes and beyond coronary artery disease: a clinical consensus statement from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging of the ESC
Institute of Clinical Physiology of the National Research Council, CNR, Pisa, Italy.
University of Liège, Walloon Region, Belgium.
CHUAC-Complexo Hospitalario Universitario A Coruna, CIBER-CV, University of A Coruna, 15070 La Coruna, Spain.
University Clinical Centre of Serbia, Medical School, Cardiology Clinic, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade.
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2024 (English)In: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging, ISSN 2047-2404, E-ISSN 2047-2412, Vol. 25, no 2, p. e65-e90Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Since the 2009 publication of the stress echocardiography expert consensus of the European Association of Echocardiography, and after the 2016 advice of the American Society of Echocardiography-European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging for applications beyond coronary artery disease, new information has become available regarding stress echo. Until recently, the assessment of regional wall motion abnormality was the only universally practiced step of stress echo. In the state-of-the-art ABCDE protocol, regional wall motion abnormality remains the main step A, but at the same time, regional perfusion using ultrasound-contrast agents may be assessed. Diastolic function and pulmonary B-lines are assessed in step B; left ventricular contractile and preload reserve with volumetric echocardiography in step C; Doppler-based coronary flow velocity reserve in the left anterior descending coronary artery in step D; and ECG-based heart rate reserve in non-imaging step E. These five biomarkers converge, conceptually and methodologically, in the ABCDE protocol allowing comprehensive risk stratification of the vulnerable patient with chronic coronary syndromes. The present document summarizes current practice guidelines recommendations and training requirements and harmonizes the clinical guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology in many diverse cardiac conditions, from chronic coronary syndromes to valvular heart disease. The continuous refinement of imaging technology and the diffusion of ultrasound-contrast agents improve image quality, feasibility, and reader accuracy in assessing wall motion and perfusion, left ventricular volumes, and coronary flow velocity. Carotid imaging detects pre-obstructive atherosclerosis and improves risk prediction similarly to coronary atherosclerosis. The revolutionary impact of artificial intelligence on echocardiographic image acquisition and analysis makes stress echo more operator-independent and objective. Stress echo has unique features of low cost, versatility, and universal availability. It does not need ionizing radiation exposure and has near-zero carbon dioxide emissions. Stress echo is a convenient and sustainable choice for functional testing within and beyond coronary artery disease.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2024. Vol. 25, no 2, p. e65-e90
Keywords [en]
carbon, cost, ischaemia, prognosis, viability, radiation, environment, stress, sustainability
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-218959DOI: 10.1093/ehjci/jead250ISI: 001096919400001PubMedID: 37798126Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85178890803OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-218959DiVA, id: diva2:1824058
Available from: 2024-01-04 Created: 2024-01-04 Last updated: 2024-03-06Bibliographically approved

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Henein, Michael Y.

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