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Inducing vulnerability to InhA inhibition restores isoniazid susceptibility in drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Department of Molecular Microbiology, Center for Women’s Infectious Disease Research, Washington University School of Medicine, MO, St. Louis, United States.
Department of Molecular Microbiology, Center for Women’s Infectious Disease Research, Washington University School of Medicine, MO, St. Louis, United States.
Department of Chemistry, Washington University in St. Louis, MO, St. Louis, United States; Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, MO, St. Louis, United States; Center for Metabolomics and Isotope Tracing, Washington University in St. Louis, MO, St. Louis, United States.
Department of Molecular Microbiology, Center for Women’s Infectious Disease Research, Washington University School of Medicine, MO, St. Louis, United States.
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2024 (English)In: mBio, ISSN 2161-2129, E-ISSN 2150-7511, Vol. 15, no 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Of the approximately 10 million cases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections each year, over 10% are resistant to the frontline antibiotic isoniazid (INH). INH resistance is predominantly caused by mutations that decrease the activity of the bacterial enzyme KatG, which mediates the conversion of the pro-drug INH to its active form INH-NAD. We previously discovered an inhibitor of Mtb respiration, C10, that enhances the bactericidal activity of INH, prevents the emergence of INH-resistant mutants, and re-sensitizes a collection of INH-resistant mutants to INH through an unknown mechanism. To investigate the mechanism of action of C10, we exploited the toxicity of high concentrations of C10 to select for resistant mutants. We discovered two mutations that confer resistance to the disruption of energy metabolism and allow for the growth of Mtb in high C10 concentrations, indicating that growth inhibition by C10 is associated with inhibition of respiration. Using these mutants as well as direct inhibitors of the Mtb electron transport chain, we provide evidence that inhibition of energy metabolism by C10 is neither sufficient nor necessary to potentiate killing by INH. Instead, we find that C10 acts downstream of INH-NAD synthesis, causing Mtb to become particularly sensitive to inhibition of the INH-NAD target, InhA, without changing the concentration of INH-NAD or the activity of InhA, the two predominant mechanisms of potentiating INH. Our studies revealed that there exists a vulnerability in Mtb that can be exploited to render Mtb sensitive to otherwise subinhibitory concentrations of InhA inhibitor. IMPORTANCE Isoniazid (INH) is a critical frontline antibiotic to treat Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections. INH efficacy is limited by its suboptimal penetration of the Mtb-containing lesion and by the prevalence of clinical INH resistance. We previously discovered a compound, C10, that enhances the bactericidal activity of INH, prevents the emergence of INH-resistant mutants, and re-sensitizes a set of INH-resistant mutants to INH. Resistance is typically mediated by katG mutations that decrease the activation of INH, which is required for INH to inhibit the essential enzyme InhA. Our current work demonstrates that C10 re-sensitizes INH-resistant katG-hypomorphs without enhancing the activation of INH. We furthermore show that C10 causes Mtb to become particularly vulnerable to InhA inhibition without compromising InhA activity on its own. Therefore, C10 represents a novel strategy to curtail the development of INH resistance and to sensitize Mtb to sub-lethal doses of INH, such as those achieved at the infection site.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Society for Microbiology, 2024. Vol. 15, no 3
Keywords [en]
antibiotic resistance, isoniazid, KatG, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, mycolic acids
National Category
Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-222574DOI: 10.1128/mbio.02968-23ISI: 001155076400001PubMedID: 38294237Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85187690531OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-222574DiVA, id: diva2:1849645
Funder
NIH (National Institutes of Health), T32AI007172NIH (National Institutes of Health), R01 AI134847NIH (National Institutes of Health), R35 ES028365The Kempe Foundations, MK-1755Swedish Research Council, 2018-04589Swedish Research Council, 2021-05040JFamiljen Erling-Perssons StiftelseAvailable from: 2024-04-08 Created: 2024-04-08 Last updated: 2024-04-08Bibliographically approved

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Sarkar, SouvikAlmqvist, Fredrik

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