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Low-protein infant formula enriched with Alpha-lactalbumin during early infancy may reduce insulin resistance at 12 months: a follow-up of a randomized controlled trial
Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Pediatrics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
Arla Foods Ingredients Group P/S, Viby, Denmark.
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2024 (English)In: Nutrients, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 16, no 7, article id 1026Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High protein intake during infancy results in accelerated early weight gain and potentially later obesity. The aim of this follow-up study at 12 months was to evaluate if modified low-protein formulas fed during early infancy have long-term effects on growth and metabolism. In a double-blinded RCT, the ALFoNS study, 245 healthy-term infants received low-protein formulas with either alpha-lactalbumin-enriched whey (α-lac-EW; 1.75 g protein/100 kcal), casein glycomacropeptide-reduced whey (CGMP-RW; 1.76 g protein/100 kcal), or standard infant formula (SF; 2.2 g protein/100 kcal) between 2 and 6 months of age. Breastfed (BF) infants served as a reference. At 12 months, anthropometrics and dietary intake were assessed, and serum was analyzed for insulin, C-peptide, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Weight gain between 6 and 12 months and BMI at 12 months were higher in the SF than in the BF infants (p = 0.019; p < 0.001, respectively), but were not significantly different between the low-protein formula groups and the BF group. S-insulin and C-peptide were higher in the SF than in the BF group (p < 0.001; p = 0.003, respectively), but more alike in the low-protein formula groups and the BF group. Serum IGF-1 at 12 months was similar in all study groups. Conclusion: Feeding modified low-protein formula during early infancy seems to reduce insulin resistance, resulting in more similar growth, serum insulin, and C-peptide concentrations to BF infants at 6-months post intervention. Feeding modified low-protein formula during early infancy results in more similar growth, serum insulin, and C-peptide concentrations to BF infants 6-months post intervention, probably due to reduced insulin resistance in the low-protein groups.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2024. Vol. 16, no 7, article id 1026
Keywords [en]
alpha-lactalbumin, body mass index, CGMP, childhood obesity, IGF-1, infant formula, infant growth, infant nutrition, insulin, low-protein
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics Pediatrics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-223643DOI: 10.3390/nu16071026ISI: 001201557500001PubMedID: 38613059Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85190492425OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-223643DiVA, id: diva2:1853980
Available from: 2024-04-24 Created: 2024-04-24 Last updated: 2024-04-24Bibliographically approved

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Hernell, Olle

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