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Wireless video sensor network and its applications in digital zoo
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. (Digital Media Lab)
2010 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Most computing and communicating devices have been personal computers that were connected to Internet through a fixed network connection. It is believed that future communication devices will not be of this type. Instead the intelligence and communication capability will move into various objects that surround us. This is often referred to as the "Internet of Things" or "Wireless Embedded Internet". This thesis deals with video processing and communication in these types of systems.

One application scenario that is dealt with in this thesis is real-time video transmission over wireless ad-hoc networks. Here a set of devices automatically form a network and start to communicate without the need for any previous infrastructure. These devices act as both hosts and routers and can build up large networks where they forward information for each other. We have identified two major problems when sending real-time video over wireless ad-hoc networks. One is the reactive design used by most ad-hoc routing protocols. When nodes move some links that are used in the communication path between the sender and the receiver may disappear. The reactive routing protocols wait until some links on the path breaks and then start to search for a new path. This will lead to long interruptions in packet delivery and does not work well for real-time video transmission. Instead we propose an approach where we identify when a route is about to break and start to search for new routes before this happen. This is called a proactive approach. Another problem is that video codecs are very sensitive for packet losses and at the same time the wireless ad-hoc network is very error prone. The most common way to handle lost packets in video codecs is to periodically insert frames that are not predictively coded. This method periodically corrects errors regardless there has been an error or not. The method we propose is to insert frames that are not predictively coded directly after a packet has been lost, and only if a packet has been lost.

Another area that is dealt with in this thesis is video sensor networks. These are small devices that have communication and computational capacity, they are equipped with an image sensor so that they can capture video. Since these devices in general have very limited resources in terms of energy, computation, communication and memory they demand a lot of the video compression algorithms used. In standard video compression algorithms the complexity is high for the encoder while the decoder has low complexity and is just passively controlled by the encoder. We propose video compression algorithms for wireless video sensor networks where complexity is reduced in the encoder by moving some of the image analysis to the decoder side. We have implemented our approach on actual low-power sensor nodes to test our developed algorithms.

Finally we have built a "Digital Zoo" that is a complete system including a large scale outdoor video sensor network. The goal is to use the collected data from the video sensor network to create new experiences for physical visitors in the zoo, or "cyber" visitors from home. Here several topics that relate to practical deployments of sensor networks are addressed.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Umeå: Umeå universitet, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik , 2010. , s. 56
Serie
Digital Media Lab, ISSN 1652-6295 ; 13
Nyckelord [en]
Wireless Sensor Networks, Wireless ad-hoc Networks, Digital Zoo, Video Compression, Real-Time Video Communication, Object Tracking, Sensor Fusion
Nationell ämneskategori
Annan elektroteknik och elektronik
Forskningsämne
signalbehandling
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-38032ISBN: 978-91-7459-116-3 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-38032DiVA, id: diva2:371894
Disputation
2010-12-14, Teknikhuset, A305, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 10:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2010-11-23 Skapad: 2010-11-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-08Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. Real-time video over wireless ad-hoc networks
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Real-time video over wireless ad-hoc networks
2005 (Engelska)Ingår i: Conference on Computer Communications and Networks, 2005.: Proceedings 14th International Conference on (ICCCN 2005), 17-19 October 2005, San Diego, California, USA, IEEE , 2005, s. 596-596Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we investigate important issue for real-time video over wireless ad-hoc networks on different layers. Many error control methods for this approach use multiple streams and multipath routing. Thus the new proactive, link-state routing protocol have been developed, where the protocol finds the available route in the network and also it will not cause any interruption in the video traffic between the source and the destination. The open source MPEG-4 is also implemented to get the efficient video quality for the picture.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
IEEE, 2005
Serie
Proceedings, ISSN 1095-2055
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-38017 (URN)10.1109/ICCCN.2005.1523953 (DOI)0-7803-9428-3 (ISBN)
Konferens
ICCCN 2005, 17-19 October 2005, San Diego, California, USA
Tillgänglig från: 2010-11-22 Skapad: 2010-11-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-08Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Two hop connectivity for uniformed randomly distributed points in the unit square
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Two hop connectivity for uniformed randomly distributed points in the unit square
2006 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Communications and Networking in China (CHINACOM 2006). 25-27 October 2006, Beijing, China., 2006Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Connectivity in ad-hoc networks is a fundamental, but to a large extend still unsolved problem. In this paper we consider the connectivity problem when a number of nodes are uniformly distributed within a unit square. We limit our problem to the one-hop and two-hop connectivity. For the one-hop connectivity we find the exact analytically solution. For the two-hop connectivity we find the lower and upper bound for connectivity.

Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-38027 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2010-11-22 Skapad: 2010-11-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-08Bibliografiskt granskad
3. Efficient P2P mobile service for live media streaming
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Efficient P2P mobile service for live media streaming
2006 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the Australian Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference (ATNAC 2006). 4-6 December 2006, Melbourne, Australia., 2006Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Mobile TV is a new interesting area in the telecommunication industry. The technology for sending live video to mobile clients is characterized by relatively low CPU processing power, low network resources, and low display resolution. In this paper we discuss a solution to all of these problems by using application layer multicasting. This can significantly reduce the needed bitrate and required computing resources for each client. At the same time the received video quality is increased. Several different methods for splitting the video into substreams are discussed. Simulations for the local wireless ad-hoc network are performed. A system for application layer multicasting using layered H.264 is also presented.

Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-38028 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2010-11-22 Skapad: 2010-11-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-08Bibliografiskt granskad
4. Enabling real-time video services over ad-hoc networks opens the gates for e-learning in areas lacking infrastructure
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Enabling real-time video services over ad-hoc networks opens the gates for e-learning in areas lacking infrastructure
2009 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM),, ISSN 1865-7923, Vol. 3, nr 4, s. 17-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper we suggest a promising solution to come over the problems of delivering e-learning to areas with lack or deficiencies in infrastructure for Internet and mobile communication. We present a simple, reasonably priced and efficient communication platform for providing e-learning. This platform is based on wireless ad-hoc networks. We also present a preemptive routing protocol suitable for real-time video communication over wireless ad-hoc networks. Our results show that this routing protocol can significantly improve the quality of the received video. This makes our suggested system not only good to overcome the infrastructure barrier but even capable of delivering a high quality e-learning material.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Wien, Austria: International Association of Online Engineering, 2009
Nyckelord
E-learning, Education, Ad-hoc networks, Wireless LAN, Video coding
Nationell ämneskategori
Pedagogik Systemvetenskap, informationssystem och informatik Telekommunikation
Forskningsämne
pedagogik; människa-dator interaktion; signalbehandling
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-26948 (URN)10.3991/ijim.v3i4.911 (DOI)
Projekt
ICT-LEAP: EU TEMPUS JEP-32162-2004EU Mål2 Digital Djurpark
Tillgänglig från: 2009-11-04 Skapad: 2009-11-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-08Bibliografiskt granskad
5. Real-time image streaming over a low-bandwidth wireless camera network
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Real-time image streaming over a low-bandwidth wireless camera network
Visa övriga...
2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing (ISSNIP 2007). 3-6 December 2007, Melbourne, Australia., 2007, s. 113-118Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we describe the recent development of a low- bandwidth wireless camera sensor network. We propose a simple, yet effective, network architecture which allows multiple cameras to be connected to the network and synchronize their communication schedules. Image compression of greater than 90% is performed at each node running on a local DSP coprocessor, resulting in nodes using 1/8th the energy compared to streaming uncompressed images. We briefly introduce the Fleck wireless node and the DSP/camera sensor, and then outline the network architecture and compression algorithm. The system is able to stream color QVGA images over the network to a base station at up to 2 frames per second.

Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-38030 (URN)10.1109/ISSNIP.2007.4496829 (DOI)
Tillgänglig från: 2010-11-22 Skapad: 2010-11-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-08Bibliografiskt granskad
6. Demonstration of Wyner-Ziv video compression in a wireless camera sensor network
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Demonstration of Wyner-Ziv video compression in a wireless camera sensor network
Visa övriga...
2009 (Engelska)Ingår i: The 9th Scandinavian Workshop on Wireless Ad-hoc & Sensor Networks (ADHOC'09 ). 4-5 May 2009, Uppsala, Sweden., Uppsala, 2009Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Sending  video over wireless sensor networks is a challenging task. The encoding and transmission of video is very resource hungry and the sensor nodes have very limited resources in terms of communication bandwidth,memory, computation and  typically 5-10 times. In this paper we will present a practical implementation of a Wyner-Ziv video codec where the reversed asymmetry in complexity between encoder and decoder can be achieved. We will also present our sensor network platform used in this demonstration known as Fleck TM-3 as well as two different co-processor daughterboards for image processing. The different daughterboards are then compared in terms of speed and energy consumption.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Uppsala: , 2009
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-38022 (URN)
Konferens
ADHOC'09, 4-5 May 2009, Uppsala, Sweden.
Tillgänglig från: 2010-11-23 Skapad: 2010-11-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-08Bibliografiskt granskad
7. Moving motion estimation from encoder for low-complexity video sensors
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Moving motion estimation from encoder for low-complexity video sensors
(Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we present an approach to provide efficient low-complexity video encoding for wireless sensor networks. We present an method based on removing the most time-consuming task, that is motion estimation, from the encoder. Instead the decoder will perform motion prediction based on the available decoded frame and send the predicted motion vectors to the encoder. We present results based on a modified H.264 implementation. Our results shows that this approach can provide rather good coding efficiency even for relatively high network delays.

Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-38023 (URN)
Anmärkning
To be submittedTillgänglig från: 2010-11-23 Skapad: 2010-11-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-08Bibliografiskt granskad
8. Human animal machine interaction: Animal behavior awareness and digital experience
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Human animal machine interaction: Animal behavior awareness and digital experience
Visa övriga...
2010 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of ACM Multimedia 2010 - Brave New Ideas, 25-29 October 2010, Firenze, Italy., 2010, s. 1269-1274Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes an intuitive wireless sensor/actuator based communication network for human animal interaction for a digital zoo. In order to enhance effective observation and control over wild life, we have built a wireless sensor network. 25 video transmitting nodes are installed for animal behavior observation and experimental vibrotactile collars have been designed for effective control in an animal park.

The goal of our research is two-folded. Firstly, to provide an interaction between digital users and animals, and monitor the animal behavior for safety purposes. Secondly, we investigate how animals can be controlled or trained based on vibrotactile stimuli instead of electric stimuli.

We have designed a multimedia sensor network for human animal machine interaction. We have evaluated the effect of human animal machine state communication model in field experiments.

Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-38024 (URN)10.1145/1873951.1874201 (DOI)978-1-60558-933-6 (ISBN)
Konferens
Brave New Ideas, 25-29 October 2010, Firenze, Italy.
Projekt
Digital Djurpark
Tillgänglig från: 2010-11-22 Skapad: 2010-11-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-08Bibliografiskt granskad
9. Applications of wireless visual sensor networks: the digital zoo
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Applications of wireless visual sensor networks: the digital zoo
Visa övriga...
2010 (Engelska)Ingår i: Visual information processing in wireless sensor networks: Technology, trends and applications / [ed] Li-minn Ang, Kah Phooi Seng, IGI Global , 2010Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

In this chapter we will describe our work to set up a large scale wireless visual sensor network in a Swedish zoo. It is located close to the Arctic Circle making the environment very hard for this type of deployment. The goal is to make the zoo digitally enhanced, leading to a more attractive and interactive zoo. To reach this goal the sensed data will be processed and semantic information will be used to support interaction design, which is a key component to provide a new type of experience for the visitors. In this chapter we will describe our research work related to the various aspects of a digital zoo

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
IGI Global, 2010
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-38025 (URN)
Anmärkning
in pressTillgänglig från: 2010-11-22 Skapad: 2010-11-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-08Bibliografiskt granskad
10. Tracking and identification of animals for a digital zoo
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Tracking and identification of animals for a digital zoo
2010 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the 1st IEEE/ACM Internet of Things Symposium, 18-20 December 2010, Hangzhou, China., 2010Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we present our approach to use a combination of radio frequency identification (RFID) and a wireless camera sensor network to identify and track animals at a zoo. We have developed and installed 25 cameras covering the whole zoo. The cameras are totally autonomous and they are configuring themselves in a wireless ad-hoc network. At strategic locations RFID readers are deployed to identify animals in close proximity. The camera network deployed in the zoo is continuous tracking animals in its field of view. By using data fusion from the camera system and the RFID readers we can get semi-continuous tracking of individual animals. The camera network has been running in the zoo for more than one year and about 5 000 hours of video has been captured and recorded. This will give us a very large dataset for offline development and testing of computer vision algorithms for animal detection and tracking.

Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-38026 (URN)
Konferens
the 1st IEEE/ACM Internet of Things Symposium, 18-20 December 2010, Hangzhou, China.
Projekt
Digital Djurpark
Tillgänglig från: 2010-11-22 Skapad: 2010-11-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-08Bibliografiskt granskad

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