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Pro-inflammatory S100A9 Protein as a Robust Biomarker Differentiating Early Stages of Cognitive Impairment in Alzheimer's Disease
Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
Vise andre og tillknytning
2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: ACS Chemical Neuroscience, ISSN 1948-7193, E-ISSN 1948-7193, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 34-39Artikkel i tidsskrift, Letter (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Pro-inflammatory protein S100A9 was established as a biomarker of dementia progression and compared with others such as Aβ1-42 and tau-proteins. CSF samples from 104 stringently diagnosed individuals divided into five subgroups were analyzed, including nondemented controls, stable mild cognitive impairment (SMCI), mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (MCI-AD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) patients. ELISA, dot-blotting, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used as research methods. The S100A9 and Aβ1-42 levels correlated with each other: their CSF content decreased already at the SMCI stage and declined further under MCI-AD, AD, and VaD conditions. Immunohistochemical analysis also revealed involvement of both Aβ1-42 and S100A9 in the amyloid-neuroinflammatory cascade already during SMCI. Tau proteins were not yet altered in SMCI; however their contents increased during MCI-AD and AD, diagnosing later dementia stages. Thus, four biomarkers together, reflecting different underlying pathological causes, can accurately differentiate dementia progression and also distinguish AD from VaD.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
2016. Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 34-39
Emneord [en]
Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment, cerebrospinal fluid, S100A9, Aβ1−42, biomarkers, amyloid, inflammation
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-111351DOI: 10.1021/acschemneuro.5b00265ISI: 000368567200006PubMedID: 26550994OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-111351DiVA, id: diva2:869183
Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-11-13 Laget: 2015-11-13 Sist oppdatert: 2018-06-07bibliografisk kontrollert
Inngår i avhandling
1. Role of pro-inflammatory S100A9 protein in amyloid-neuroinflammatory cascade in Alzheimer’s disease and traumatic brain injury
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Role of pro-inflammatory S100A9 protein in amyloid-neuroinflammatory cascade in Alzheimer’s disease and traumatic brain injury
2016 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex disease with a spectrum of symptoms and disabilities. Over the past decade TBI has become the focus of research due to growing epidemiological and clinical evidences that TBI incidences are strong risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Major pathological hallmarks of AD are massive accumulations of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) toxic oligomers and plaques. Neuroinflammation is also considered as a common denominator in AD and aging. The epidemiological and experimental studies have supported that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs markedly reduce the age-related prevalence of AD and can slow amyloid deposition by mechanisms that still remain elusive. S100A9 is a multifunctional cytokine with diverse roles in the cell signaling pathways associated with inflammation and cancers. A widespread expression of S100A9 was also reported in many other ailments involving inflammatory processes, such as AD, malaria, cerebral ischemia and TBI, implying that S100A9 may be a universal biomarker of inflammation. The distinctive feature of S100A9 compared to other pro-inflammatory cytokines is its ability to self-assemble into amyloids, which may lead to the loss of its signaling functions and acquired amyloid cytotoxicity, exceeding that of Aβ.

Methods S100A9 properties was studied under various ex vivo and in vitro conditions. First, human and mouse tissues with TBI and AD were subjected to microscopic, immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent techniques. Then, aged mouse treated with native, oligomeric and fibrillary S100A9 was also studied by using behavioral and neurochemical analysis. Moreover, S100A9 was established as a biomarker of dementia progression and compared with others such as Aβ42 and tau proteins, by studying cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from different stages of dementia. Finally, in vitro experiments on S100A9 amyloidogenesis, co-aggregation with Aβ40 and Aβ42, digestion and cytotoxicity were also performed by using spectroscopic, atomic force microscopy and cell biology methods.

Results S100A9-driven amyloid-neuroinflammatory cascade serves as a link between TBI and AD. We have found that S100A9 contributes to the plaque formation and intraneuronal responses in AD, being a part of the amyloid-neuroinflammatory cascade. In TBI we have found that extensive S100A9 neuronal production and amyloid self-assembly is triggered immediately after injury, leading to apoptotic pathways and neuronal loss. S100A9 is an integral component of both TBI precursor-plaques, formed prior to Aβ deposition, and AD plaques, characterized by different degree of amyloid maturation, indicating that all plaques are associated with inflammation. Both intra- and extracellular amyloid-neuroinflammatory cascades are intertwined and showed similar tendencies in human and mouse tissues in TBI and AD. Ex vivo findings are further supported by in vitro experiments on S100A9 amyloidogenesis, digestion and cytotoxicity. Importantly, being highly amyloidogenic itself, S100A9 can trigger and aggravate Aβ amyloid self-assembly and significantly contribute to amyloid cytotoxicity. Moreover, the CSF dynamics of S100A9 levels matches very closely the content of Aβ42 in AD, vascular dementia and mild cognitive impairment due to AD, emphasizing the involvement of S100A9 together with Aβ in the amyloid-neuroinflammatory cascade in these ailments.

Conclusions The conclusions of this thesis is that the inflammatory pathways and S100A9 specifically represent a potential target for the therapeutic interventions during various post-TBI stages and far prior AD development to halt and reverse these damaging processes.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Umeå: Umeå University, 2016. s. 31
Serie
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1838
Emneord
S100A9, Aβ, Alzheimer's disease, Traumatic brain injury, Amyloid, Neuroinflammatory
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
medicinsk biokemi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-125078 (URN)978-91-7601-547-6 (ISBN)
Eksternt samarbeid:
Disputas
2016-09-30, N300, Naturvetarhuset, Umeå, 13:00 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Prosjekter
Role of pro-inflammatory S100A9 protein in amyloid-neuroinflammatory cascade in Alzheimer’s disease and traumatic brain injury
Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-09-09 Laget: 2016-09-05 Sist oppdatert: 2018-06-07bibliografisk kontrollert

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