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Gas phase synthesis of isopropyl chloride from isopropanol and HCl over alumina and flexible 3-D carbon foam supported catalysts
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Department of Forest Biomaterials Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Umeå, Sweden.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Department of Chemistry, The University of Danang - University of Science and Technology, Nguyen Luong Bang, Lien Chieu, Da Nang, Viet Nam.
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2017 (English)In: Applied Catalysis A: General, ISSN 0926-860X, E-ISSN 1873-3875, Vol. 542, no 25, 212-225 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Isopropyl chloride synthesis from isopropanol and HCl in gas phase over ZnCl2 catalysts supported on Al2O3 as well as flexible carbon foam was studied in a continuous reactor. A series of catalytic materials were synthesised and characterised by BET, XPS, SEM, TEM, XRD and NH3-TPD methods. Catalytic activity tests (product selectivity and conversion of reactants) were performed for all materials and optimal reaction conditions (temperature and feedstock flow rates) were found. The results indicate that the highest yield of isopropyl chloride was obtained over 5 wt.% ZnCl2 on commercial Al2O3 (No. II) (95.3%). Determination of product mixture compositions and by-product identification were done using a GC-MS method. Carbon foam variant catalyst, 5 wt.% ZnCl2/C, was found to perform best out of the carbon-supported materials, achieving ∼75% yield of isopropyl chloride. The kinetic model describing the process in a continuous packed bed reactor was proposed and kinetic parameters were calculated. The activation energy for the formation of isopropyl chloride reaction directly from isopropanol and HCl was found to be ∼58 kJ/mol.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017. Vol. 542, no 25, 212-225 p.
Keyword [en]
Isopropyl chloride; Heterogeneous catalysis; Isopropanol; Hydrochlorination; Zinc chloride; Alumina oxide; Carbon foam; Highly porous catalyst
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-127043DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2017.05.013ISI: 000405765200019OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-127043DiVA: diva2:1040239
Available from: 2016-10-26 Created: 2016-10-26 Last updated: 2017-08-21Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Three-dimensional structured carbon foam: synthesis and applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Three-dimensional structured carbon foam: synthesis and applications
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Recently, due to the unique properties and structures such as large geometric surface area, electrical conductivity and light weight, 3D structured carbon materials have been attracting extensive attention from scientists. Moreover, the materials, which can provide well-defined pathways for reactants to easily access active sites, are extremely useful for energy conversion as well as environmental and catalysis applications. To date, many precursors have been used for fabrication of 3D structured carbon materials including pitch, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and polymer foams.

This thesis, as shown in the thesis title, focus on two main aspects: the study of the characteristics of melamine based carbon foam synthesized at different conditions and their applications. In paper I, it was revealed that through a simple, one-step pyrolysis process, flexible carbon foam synthesized from melamine foam (BasotectÒ, BASF) was obtained. Additionally, through a pyrolysis-activation process, activated carbon foam which possesses hydrophilic nature and high surface area was successfully synthesized. The characteristics of carbon foam such as the hydrophobic/hydrophilic nature, electrical conductivity, mechanical properties and surface chemistry were studied. It was shown that carbon foam could be successfully used as an absorbent in environmental applications e.g. removing of spill oil from water (paper I) or as support for heterogeneous catalysts, which in turn was used not only in gas phase reactions (paper I and IV) but also in an aqueous phase reaction (paper II). Importantly, when combined with a SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (SRBR) (paper II), the monolithic carbon foam/SRBR system brought more advantages than using the foam alone. Additionally, the work in paper III showed the potential of carbon foam in an energy conversion application as anode electrode substrate in alkaline water electrolysis. In summary, the versatility of the carbon foam has been proven through abovementioned lab scale studies and due to the simple, scalable and cost effective pyrolysis and activation processes used for the production, it has potential to be used in large-scale applications. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2016. 54 p.
Keyword
Carbon foam, melamine foam, absorbent, water purification, heterogeneous catalyst, catalyst support, SpinChem®, rotating bed reactor, water electrolysis, energy conversion
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-126852 (URN)978-91-7601-574-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-11-14, KB.E3.01, KBC-huset, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-10-28 Created: 2016-10-17 Last updated: 2016-10-27Bibliographically approved

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