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Response of the Worldwide Side Impact Dummy (WorldSID) to Localized Constant-Speed Impacts.
Autoliv Research, Vårgårda, Sweden .
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2011 (English)In: Annals of advances in automotive medicine. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Scientific Conference, ISSN 1943-2461, Vol. 55, 231-241 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of this study was to evaluate WorldSID constant-speed shoulder and thorax impact responses in terms of impact force, external and internal deflection (1D and 2D IR-Tracc response) for two velocities (1 m/s and 3 m/s), at three impact levels (shoulder, upper thorax and mid thorax) in three impact directions (lateral, +15° posterolateral, -15° anteraolateral). In addition, the impact force and external deflection were compared to previously published cadaver data. Each impact condition was repeated twice. A total of 42 tests were performed. The WorldSID's lowest peak impact force and external deflection were found for impact at shoulder level regardless of impact direction. Maximum force and deflection were found for impact at mid thorax. Comparison between WorldSID and PMHS showed similar external chest deflections for impacts at 3 m/s. The peak impact force response with respect to impact level was found to be reversed for the WorldSID compared to the PMHS, for which shoulder impact resulted in the highest peak force. External time history responses for the WorldSID compared to the one PMHS impacted at 1 m/s in lateral impact direction showed a significant difference in both timing and magnitude. External deflections at upper and mid thorax were approximately twice as high as the internal 1D deflection measured by the IR-Tracc. However, taking into account the rotation of the rib, the calculated 2D deflection response at the posterior impact direction was closer to the external deflection, and thus also to the PMHS deflection response at 3 m/s. These findings emphasize the need of 2D deflection measurement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 55, 231-241 p.
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-127277PubMedID: 22105399OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-127277DiVA: diva2:1044585
Available from: 2016-11-04 Created: 2016-11-04 Last updated: 2016-11-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Characteristics of nearside car crashes: an integrated approach to side impact safety
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characteristics of nearside car crashes: an integrated approach to side impact safety
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Approximately 1.25 million people globally are killed in traffic accidents yearly. To achieve the UN Global Goal of a 50% reduction of fatal and serious injuries in 2020 a safer infrastructure, as well as new safety technologies, will be needed. Side crashes represent 20% of all serious and 25 % of fatal injuries. The overall aim of this thesis is to provide guidelines for improved side impact protection. First, by characterizing nearside crashes and injury outcome, including injuries from the farside occupant, for non-senior and senior front seat occupants. Second, to determine whether the WorldSID dummy provides opportunities for improved in-crash occupant protection. And third, by relating in-crash occupant protection to pre-crash countermeasures, to explore a holistic approach for side crashes using the integrated safety chain from safe driving to crash.

Methods: NASS/CDS data for both older and modern vehicles was used to provide exposure, incidence, and risk for fatal injury as well as detailed injury distribution and crash characteristics. The WorldSID dummy was compared to Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) in impactor tests at high and low severities to demonstrate the possibilities of this tool. Crash tests were performed to evaluate WorldSID crash test dummy assessments of injuries found in the NASS/CDS data. The integrated safety chain was used to demonstrate how to evaluate occupant protection in side crashes from a larger perspective, involving infrastructure and Automated Emergency Braking.

Result: Most side crashes occur at intersections. The head, thorax, and pelvis are the most frequently injured body regions, and seniors have a higher risk for rib fractures compared to non-seniors. The WorldSID dummy response was similar to the PMHS response at the higher impact speed, but not at the lower. In conjunction with improved airbags infrastructural change, and the use of Automated Emergency Braking, can effectively reduce the number of fatalities and injured occupants in side impacts.

Conclusion: Future focus for side impact protection should be on intersection crashes, improved occupant protection for senior occupants, and protection for and from the farside occupant, reducing injury risk to the head, thorax, and pelvis. The WorldSID dummy has the ability to reproduce humanlike responses in lateral and oblique impacts. However, at a low crash severity, chest deflection could be underestimated, which must be taken into consideration when evaluating, for example, pre-crash inflated side airbags. Analyzing nearside crashes using the integrated safety chain shows that speed management by means of roundabouts is an efficient countermeasure reducing the number of injurious crashes, as well as reducing variations in crash severity. In combination with an Automated Emergency Braking a large part of side crashes could be avoided or crash severity mitigated. Rather than developing structures and airbags for high-speed crashes, it is important to consider alternative countermeasures. Hence the need for an integrated approach to side impacts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2016. 58 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1855
Keyword
side impact, WorldSID, thorax, injuries, side airbag, sidokollision, WorldSID, thorax, injuries, side airbag
National Category
Surgery
Research subject
biomechanics; Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-126985 (URN)978-91-7601-587-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-11-11, NUS 1D - Tandläkarhögskolan, Hörsal D, Umeå, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-10-25 Created: 2016-10-25 Last updated: 2016-11-04Bibliographically approved

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Sunnevång, Cecilia
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology

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