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Evaluation of a novel chamber setup for human exposures of biomass combustion aerosols
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. (Thermochemical Energy Conversion Laboratory)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2497-5294
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Based on a vast number of epidemiological studies there is today a consensus that increased concentrations of ambient particulate matter air pollution cause adverse health effects such as mortality, hospitalizations, cardiovascular events, respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function. The use of controlled laboratory studies with human exposure chambers can give unique opportunities to directly examine specific exposure conditions and cause-effect relationship with relevant concentrations and particle types. In this paper, the design of a novel chamber setup for human exposures of biomass combustion aerosols is described with an evaluation of the systems function under different conditions (e.g. air exchange rates and target PM1 concentrations). Several different research biomass combustion systems are available in combination with extensive and advanced monitoring and characterization of the gaseous and particle emissions used for exposures. Examples, with data from three performed human exposure campaigns, are included and discussed as a basis for the evaluation of the whole setup, with the target to generate stable conditions in the chamber using different kinds of biomass combustion aerosols. Based on the evaluation of function and present exposure experiences it can be concluded that the chamber setup and biomass aerosol generation systems is able to produce a stable aerosol concentration in the chamber of different particle types.  Overall, the human exposure setup for biomass combustion aerosols together with the integrated biomass combustion laboratory gives extensive possibilities for designing different whole body human exposure studies for a variety of biomass combustion aerosols as well as other experimental aerosol research.

National Category
Respiratory Medicine and Allergy Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-127361OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-127361DiVA: diva2:1045493
Available from: 2016-11-09 Created: 2016-11-09 Last updated: 2016-11-21
In thesis
1. Particle emissions from residential wood and biodiesel combustion
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Particle emissions from residential wood and biodiesel combustion
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Emissions from anthropogenic combustion sources, such as vehicles and biomass combustion, contribute significantly to ambient particulate matter (PM) both on a local and global scale. Exposure to ambient PM and air pollution in general is linked to a variety of different health effects and it has been estimated that as many as 2.1 million premature deaths each year, due to cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer, are caused by the changes in anthropogenic air pollution since pre-industrial times. There is today still a lack of information regarding the emissions of different specific particulate emission components, e.g. soot, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxy-PAHs combined with details about the behaviour of different fuels under varying combustion conditions. The overall objective of this work was to provide new knowledge regarding physical and chemical properties of PM from solid and liquid biofuels, which are important for the viewpoint of human health and atmospheric pollution. This was achieved by experimental studies of the combustion of biomass using a residential wood stove and by introducing biodiesel to an off-road engine, thereby investigating two major emission sources for PM and gaseous emissions.

From the two papers regarding biodiesel included in this thesis, it can be concluded that the introduction of the biodiesel, and potentially other renewable fuels, can in a considerable way change the exhaust particle emissions. This could have implications for the assessment of exhaust from engines running on biodiesel fuels, especially when introducing biodiesel in existing and older engines.

The results from the wood combustion research performed showed some important considerations regarding both specific particle properties and the influences of different burning conditions and fuels. One major finding, based on several of the included studies, was that a proper operation of a wood stove is of major importance to avoid unfavourable burning condition and elevated emissions of soot and organic particles, regardless of the wood species used. Some specific occasions during the burning phases in batch wise wood combustion were also identified as important for the overall emissions. The results from this research has given new specific insights into the emissions from wood stoves and should be of relevance for both technological development of residential appliances, emission testing/certification, information to users and legislation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2016. 75 p.
Keyword
Combustion, biomass, wood, biodiesel, particulate matter, emissions, aerosols, physicochemical properties, size distribution, PAH
National Category
Other Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-127460 (URN)978-91-7601-605-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-12-14, N460, Naturvetarhuset, Johan Bures Väg 16, Umeå, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-11-23 Created: 2016-11-14 Last updated: 2016-11-22Bibliographically approved

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Nyström, RobinBlomberg, AndersSandström, ThomasBoman, Christoffer
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