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Effects of dilution conditions on particle formation and size distribution in engine exhaust emissions when introducing biodiesel in comparison to standard petro diesel
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. (Thermochemical Energy Conversion Laboratory)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2497-5294
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Air pollution, in particular ambient particulate matter (PM), can be linked to a variety of different health effects, and a major contributor to the PM pollution is exhaust from diesel engines and other vehicles. In the global drive towards finding sustainable and clean bio-based alternative fuels for the transport sector, biodiesel is one of the most established alternative. However, there is considerable variation in emission data for biodiesel, preferably explained by influences of engine technology and operating conditions as well as dilution sampling strategy. In this study the focus was therefore to study the effects of dilution conditions on the particle formation and size distribution in the exhaust emissions from an off road engine, when introducing RME biodiesel in comparison to standard petro diesel. Particle size distribution and number concentration were measured on-line with the use of a fast mobility spectrometer, during a transient operation and without engine modification. Differences in particle characteristics were elucidated in the raw exhaust versus diluted exhaust at two subsequent sampling points with different dilution ratios. In addition, the influences on the exhaust particle properties of changing the lubrication oil was investigated. It was found that biodiesel in general generated more nucleation mode particles then petro diesel, and after the oil exchange the total particle number concentration was increased even more. It was also seen that the custom-built dilution setup favors generation of nucleation mode particles, which is in line with real life conditions in chase and road side experiments. However, when using heated primary dilution and a heated line in the raw exhaust the formation of nucleation mode particles was suppressed. Overall, it was concluded that the introduction of the biodiesel, and potentially other renewable fuels, can in a considerable way change the exhaust particle emission and characteristics. This could have implications for the assessment of exhaust from engines running on biodiesel fuels, especially when introducing biodiesel in existing and older engines.

National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-127459OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-127459DiVA: diva2:1046380
Available from: 2016-11-14 Created: 2016-11-14 Last updated: 2016-11-21
In thesis
1. Particle emissions from residential wood and biodiesel combustion
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Particle emissions from residential wood and biodiesel combustion
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Emissions from anthropogenic combustion sources, such as vehicles and biomass combustion, contribute significantly to ambient particulate matter (PM) both on a local and global scale. Exposure to ambient PM and air pollution in general is linked to a variety of different health effects and it has been estimated that as many as 2.1 million premature deaths each year, due to cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer, are caused by the changes in anthropogenic air pollution since pre-industrial times. There is today still a lack of information regarding the emissions of different specific particulate emission components, e.g. soot, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxy-PAHs combined with details about the behaviour of different fuels under varying combustion conditions. The overall objective of this work was to provide new knowledge regarding physical and chemical properties of PM from solid and liquid biofuels, which are important for the viewpoint of human health and atmospheric pollution. This was achieved by experimental studies of the combustion of biomass using a residential wood stove and by introducing biodiesel to an off-road engine, thereby investigating two major emission sources for PM and gaseous emissions.

From the two papers regarding biodiesel included in this thesis, it can be concluded that the introduction of the biodiesel, and potentially other renewable fuels, can in a considerable way change the exhaust particle emissions. This could have implications for the assessment of exhaust from engines running on biodiesel fuels, especially when introducing biodiesel in existing and older engines.

The results from the wood combustion research performed showed some important considerations regarding both specific particle properties and the influences of different burning conditions and fuels. One major finding, based on several of the included studies, was that a proper operation of a wood stove is of major importance to avoid unfavourable burning condition and elevated emissions of soot and organic particles, regardless of the wood species used. Some specific occasions during the burning phases in batch wise wood combustion were also identified as important for the overall emissions. The results from this research has given new specific insights into the emissions from wood stoves and should be of relevance for both technological development of residential appliances, emission testing/certification, information to users and legislation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2016. 75 p.
Keyword
Combustion, biomass, wood, biodiesel, particulate matter, emissions, aerosols, physicochemical properties, size distribution, PAH
National Category
Other Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-127460 (URN)978-91-7601-605-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-12-14, N460, Naturvetarhuset, Johan Bures Väg 16, Umeå, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-11-23 Created: 2016-11-14 Last updated: 2016-11-22Bibliographically approved

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