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Household Air Pollution: Sources and Exposure Levels to Fine Particulate Matter in Nairobi Slums
Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
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2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: TOXICS, ISSN 2305-6304, Vol. 4, nr 3, artikel-id 12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

With 2.8 billion biomass users globally, household air pollution remains a public health threat in many low- and middle-income countries. However, little evidence on pollution levels and health effects exists in low-income settings, especially slums. This study assesses the levels and sources of household air pollution in the urban slums of Nairobi. This cross-sectional study was embedded in a prospective cohort of pregnant women living in two slum areasKorogocho and Viwandaniin Nairobi. Data on fuel and stove types and ventilation use come from 1058 households, while air quality data based on the particulate matters (PM2.5) level were collected in a sub-sample of 72 households using the DustTrak II Model 8532 monitor. We measured PM2.5 levels mainly during daytime and using sources of indoor air pollutions. The majority of the households used kerosene (69.7%) as a cooking fuel. In households where air quality was monitored, the mean PM2.5 levels were high and varied widely, especially during the evenings (124.6 mu g/m(3) SD: 372.7 in Korogocho and 82.2 mu g/m(3) SD: 249.9 in Viwandani), and in households using charcoal (126.5 mu g/m(3) SD: 434.7 in Korogocho and 75.7 mu g/m(3) SD: 323.0 in Viwandani). Overall, the mean PM2.5 levels measured within homes at both sites (Korogocho = 108.9 mu g/m(3) SD: 371.2; Viwandani = 59.3 mu g/m(3) SD: 234.1) were high. Residents of the two slums are exposed to high levels of PM2.5 in their homes. We recommend interventions, especially those focusing on clean cookstoves and lighting fuels to mitigate indoor levels of fine particles.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
2016. Vol. 4, nr 3, artikel-id 12
Nyckelord [en]
household air pollution, cookstoves, PM2.5, slums, Nairobi
Nationell ämneskategori
Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi Arbetsmedicin och miljömedicin
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-127636DOI: 10.3390/toxics4030012ISI: 000385516600001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-127636DiVA, id: diva2:1049039
Tillgänglig från: 2016-11-23 Skapad: 2016-11-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-09Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Air pollution in Nairobi slums: sources, levels and lay perceptions
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Air pollution in Nairobi slums: sources, levels and lay perceptions
2017 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Background

Air quality in Africa has remained a relatively under-researched field. Most of the African population is dependent on biomass for cooking and heating, with most of the combustion happening in low efficiency stoves in unvented kitchens. The resulting high emissions are compounded by ingress from poor outdoor air in a context of poor emissions controls. The situation is dire in slum households where homes are crowded and space is limited, pushing households to cook in the same room that is used for sleeping. This study assessed the levels of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter £ 2.5 microns (PM2.5) in slum households and people's perceptions of and attitudes towards air pollution and health risks of exposure in two slum areas, Viwandani and Korogocho, in the Nairobi city.

Methods

The study employed both qualitative and quantitative methods. For the quantitative study, we used structured questionnaires to collect data about the source of air pollution among adults aged 18 years and above and pregnant women residing in the two study communities. We used the DustTrak™ air samplers to monitor the indoor PM2.5 levels in selected households. We also collected data on community perceptions on air pollution, annoyance and associated health risks. We presented hotspot maps to portray the spatial distribution of perceptions on air pollution in the study areas. For the qualitative study, we conducted focus group discussions with adult community members. Groups were disaggregated by age to account for different languages used to communicate with the younger and older people. We analysed the qualitative data using thematic analysis.

Results

Household levels of PM2.5 varied widely across households and ranged from 1 to 12,369μg/m3 (SD=287.11). The household levels of PM2.5 levels were likely to exceed the WHO guidelines given the high levels observed in less than 24 hours of monitoring periods (on average 10.4 hours in Viwandani and 11.8 hours in Korogocho). Most of the respondents did not use ventilation use in the evening which coincided with the use of cookstove and lamp, mostly burning kerosene. The levels of PM2.5 varied by the type of fuels, with the highest emissions in households using kerosene for cooking and lighting. The PM2.5 levels spiked in the evenings and during periods of cooking using charcoal/wood. Despite these high levels, residents perceived indoor air to be less polluted compared with the outdoor air, possibly due to the presence of large sources of emissions near the communities such as dumpsites and industries. The community had mixed perceptions on the health impacts of air pollution, with respiratory illnesses perceived as the main consequence while vector or sanitation related diseases such as diarrhoea was also perceived to be related to air pollution.

Conclusions

With poor housing and reliance on dirty fuels, households in slums face potentially high levels of exposure to PM2.5 with dire implications on health. To address the poor perception on air pollution and knowledge gaps on the health effects of air pollution, education programs need to be developed and tailored. These programs should aim to provide residents with information on air quality and its impact on the health; what they can do as communities as well as empower them to reach out to government/stakeholders for action on outdoor sources of pollution such as emissions from dumpsites or industries. The government has a larger role in addressing some of the key pollution sources through policy formulation and strong implementation/enforcement.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Umeå: Umeå University, 2017. s. 68
Serie
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1903
Nyckelord
Air pollution, perceptions, slums, health impacts, Nairobi
Nationell ämneskategori
Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi
Forskningsämne
epidemiologi; folkhälsa
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-138293 (URN)978-91-7601-739-5 (ISBN)
Disputation
2017-09-01, Sal 135, byggnad 9 A, Allmänmedicin, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 09:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2017-08-18 Skapad: 2017-08-17 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-09Bibliografiskt granskad

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