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aroA-Deficient Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Is More Than a Metabolically Attenuated Mutant
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2016 (English)In: mBio, ISSN 2161-2129, E-ISSN 2150-7511, Vol. 7, no 5, e01220-16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recombinant attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains are believed to act as powerful live vaccine carriers that are able to elicit protection against various pathogens. Auxotrophic mutations, such as a deletion of aroA, are commonly introduced into such bacteria for attenuation without incapacitating immunostimulation. In this study, we describe the surprising finding that deletion of aroA dramatically increased the virulence of attenuated Salmonella in mouse models. Mutant bacteria lacking aroA elicited increased levels of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) after systemic application. A detailed genetic and phenotypic characterization in combination with transcriptomic and metabolic profiling demonstrated that Delta aroA mutants display pleiotropic alterations in cellular physiology and lipid and amino acid metabolism, as well as increased sensitivity to penicillin, complement, and phagocytic uptake. In concert with other immunomodulating mutations, deletion of aroA affected flagellin phase variation and gene expression of the virulence-associated genes arnT and ansB. Finally, Delta aroA strains displayed significantly improved tumor therapeutic activity. These results highlight the importance of a functional shikimate pathway to control homeostatic bacterial physiology. They further highlight the great potential of Delta aroA-attenuated Salmonella for the development of vaccines and cancer therapies with important implications for host-pathogen interactions and translational medicine. 

IMPORTANCE Recombinant attenuated bacterial vector systems based on genetically engineered Salmonella have been developed as highly potent vaccines. Due to the pathogenic properties of Salmonella, efficient attenuation is required for clinical applications. Since the hallmark study by Hoiseth and Stocker in 1981 (S. K. Hoiseth and B. A. D. Stocker, Nature 291:238-239, 1981, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/291238a0), the auxotrophic Delta aroA mutation has been generally considered safe and universally used to attenuate bacterial strains. Here, we are presenting the remarkable finding that a deletion of aroA leads to pronounced alterations of gene expression, metabolism, and cellular physiology, which resulted in increased immunogenicity, virulence, and adjuvant potential of Salmonella. These results suggest that the enhanced immunogenicity of aroA-deficient Salmonella strains might be advantageous for optimizing bacterial vaccine carriers and immunotherapy. Accordingly, we demonstrate a superior performance of Delta aroA Salmonella in bacterium-mediated tumor therapy. In addition, the present study highlights the importance of a functional shikimate pathway to sustain bacterial physiology and metabolism.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 7, no 5, e01220-16
National Category
Microbiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-128275DOI: 10.1128/mBio.01220-16ISI: 000390132900014OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-128275DiVA: diva2:1051091
Available from: 2016-12-01 Created: 2016-12-01 Last updated: 2017-01-16Bibliographically approved

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Bueno, EmilioCava, Felipe
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CiteExportLink to record
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