umu.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Self-reported and performance-based measures of executive functions in interned youth
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5884-6469
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3450-8067
2017 (English)In: Psychology, Crime and Law, ISSN 1068-316X, E-ISSN 1477-2744, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 240-253Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study address three questions: (a) Do interned adolescents exhibit general or specific deficits in the core executive functions, as compared to an age-matched control group? (b) Do interned adolescents report more executive problems in everyday life, as compared to an age-matched control group? And (c) are performance-based measures of executive functions related to self-reported executive problems? Thirty-one interned youths and 40 non-interned controls participated in the study. To this end, we measured the three constituents (inhibition, shifting, and updating) of the Unity/Diversity model of executive functioning, as well as the participants’ self-reported everyday executive functioning using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions scale. The interned group performed less well compared to the control group on the majority of performance-based tasks but did not show more pronounced deficits in any one executive function, reflective of a more general deficit. Compared to the controls, the interned adolescents also reported more dysfunction in executive behaviors related to the ability to inhibit action, behavioral flexibility, working memory, and the ability to follow through with tasks. Overall, correlations between self-report and performance-based measures were weak. These findings suggest that performance-based and self-report measures may assess different, albeit important, aspects of executive functioning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge , 2017. Vol. 23, no 3, p. 240-253
Keywords [en]
adolescence, Antisocial behavior, executive functions, performance-based measures, ratings of behavior
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-128353DOI: 10.1080/1068316X.2016.1239725ISI: 000395410000003OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-128353DiVA, id: diva2:1051579
Funder
The Swedish National Board of Institutional Care, SiS, 1.2009/0018.5-1Available from: 2016-12-02 Created: 2016-12-02 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Cognition in interned adolescents: aspects of executive functions and training
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognition in interned adolescents: aspects of executive functions and training
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Anstaltsplacerade ungdomars kognition : aspekter på exekutiv förmåga och träning därav
Abstract [en]

This doctoral thesis examines adolescents with a history of antisocial behavior with a focus on investigating executive functioning, impulsivity and experiences of everyday executive problems. The thesis further investigates the associations between self-reported and performance-based measures. Finally, it investigates whether processed-based executive function training can influence trained and non-trained executive functions and related scholastic abilities.

Antisocial behavior is a complex concept, associated with high costs of personal, interpersonal and societal nature. In general, people implement the majority of their life´s share of delinquent and antisocial behaviors around the adolescent years, as described by the so-called age-crime curve. This period is associated with rapid cognitive development, and deficits in this period of time have been associated with an increased susceptibility to partake in antisocial behavior. Also, larger impairments are associated with more severe behaviors. In many western countries, there exist a duality of both welfare and judicial considerations in the case of antisocial individuals who are minors. As compared to adults, persons under the age of criminal responsibility typically face a different combination of rehabilitative and penal consequences from maladaptive, delinquent or antisocial behaviors. In this context, increased understanding of the cognitive underpinnings of antisocial behavior, and how best to support sound cognitive development are therefore relevant to the furthering of rehabilitative practice. This thesis expands on existing knowledge by examining interned adolescents from an executive functions framework and also investigates how it relate to other constructs of clinical relevance.

This is done in three empirical studies. The first two are cross-sectional and aimed at assessing a number of cognitive constructs and associated behaviors. The third study is aimed at examining the effects of a training intervention on said constructs. The studies indicated poorer pre-test performance by the interned adolescents as compared to their non-interned counterparts. However, no deficits specific to any one executive function was discernable. The results also showed that the internees self-reports expressed more perceived problems with inhibiting behaviors and managing unplanned prompts to shift from a planned activity. They also indicated it harder to resist impulsive behaviors related to negative affect, lower premeditative ability, and had more issues with persevering in prolonged tasks. In addition, there were a few connections between the performance-based and the self-reported accounts of executive functioning. Of particular interest was that the majority of group effects in self-reported constructs was related to the specific executive function updating, a finding not previously reported. This executive function has previously been suggested to be antecedent of antisocial behavior though. As for the training, the only substantial improvement was to perceptual speed, which occurred irrespective of training progression or experimental condition. This was mirrored by the posttest self-reports whose rather modest gains were also unrelated to both experimental conditions and training improvements.

In conclusion, executive functioning and trait-based cognition are related to some degree, and both associate to antisocial behavior as operationalized by internment status. Process-based cognitive training can however not feasibly be determined to affect or alter these relations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2018. p. 82
Series
Umeå Studies in the Educational Sciences ; 28
Keywords
interned youth, adolescence, antisocial behavior, executive functions, cognitive training, transfer, performance-based measures, self-assessment, impulsivity
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-144760 (URN)978-91-7601-832-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-03-09, Nbvh 1031, Norra Beteendevetarhuset, Umeå, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
The Swedish National Board of Institutional Care, SiS, 1.2009/0018.5-1
Available from: 2018-02-16 Created: 2018-02-13 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text in DiVA

Other links

Publisher's full text

Authority records BETA

Nordvall, OlovJonsson, BertStigsdotter Neely, Anna

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Nordvall, OlovJonsson, BertStigsdotter Neely, Anna
By organisation
Department of Psychology
In the same journal
Psychology, Crime and Law
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 112 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf