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CRISPR-Cas: biology, mechanisms and relevance
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Department of Regulation in Infection Biology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin 10117, Germany.
2016 (English)In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 371, no 1707, 20150496Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Prokaryotes have evolved several defence mechanisms to protect themselves from viral predators. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and their associated proteins (Cas) display a prokaryotic adaptive immune system that memorizes previous infections by integrating short sequences of invading genomes-termed spacers-into the CRISPR locus. The spacers interspaced with repeats are expressed as small guide CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) that are employed by Cas proteins to target invaders sequence-specifically upon a reoccurring infection. The ability of the minimal CRISPR-Cas9 system to target DNA sequences using programmable RNAs has opened new avenues in genome editing in a broad range of cells and organisms with high potential in therapeutical applications. While numerous scientific studies have shed light on the biochemical processes behind CRISPR-Cas systems, several aspects of the immunity steps, however, still lack sufficient understanding. This review summarizes major discoveries in the CRISPR-Cas field, discusses the role of CRISPR-Cas in prokaryotic immunity and other physiological properties, and describes applications of the system as a DNA editing technology and antimicrobial agent. This article is part of the themed issue 'The new bacteriology'.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 371, no 1707, 20150496
Keyword [en]
CRISPR, Cas9, bacteriophage, genome editing
National Category
Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-127582DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0496ISI: 000385338300004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-127582DiVA: diva2:1055836
Available from: 2016-12-13 Created: 2016-11-16 Last updated: 2017-02-22Bibliographically approved

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Charpentier, Emmanuelle
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Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS)Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR)Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine)
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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences
Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
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