umu.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Distributional justice in Swedish wind power development – an odds ratio analysis of windmill localization and local residents' socio-economic characteristics
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. (Arcum)
2017 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 105, p. 648-657Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With a fast rise in large-scale wind power development in Sweden and other countries in recent years, issues related to energy justice generally and distributional justice specifically have become concerns in windmill siting. Some research, for instance, has indicated that it is easier to build windmills in economically marginalized communities. The evidence for this, however, is still limited. Thus, this study aims to statistically evaluate the extent to which the decisions to approve or reject windmill proposals in Sweden can be explained by factors related to the socio-economic characteristics of people living in the areas surrounding windmill sites. The study is based on an odds ratio analysis of decisions on all windmill proposals in Sweden, in which georeferenced socio-economic data on an individual level for all inhabitants within 3 and 10 km of the windmill sites are studied. The results show skewness in the distribution of windmills, with a higher likelihood of rejection in areas with more highly educated people and people working in the private sector, compared to a higher likelihood of approval in areas with more unemployed people. This skewness, while not necessarily unjust, warrants further policy and research attention to distributional justice issues when developing wind power.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 105, p. 648-657
Keywords [en]
wind power, energy justice, distributional justice, planning process, odds ratio
National Category
Human Geography
Research subject
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-129864DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2017.03.007ISI: 000400532900063Local ID: 881251OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-129864DiVA, id: diva2:1063318
Available from: 2017-01-09 Created: 2017-01-09 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Where the Wind Blows: the socio-political geography of wind power development in Finland, Norway and Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Where the Wind Blows: the socio-political geography of wind power development in Finland, Norway and Sweden
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Där Vinden Viner : vindkraftsutbyggnadens socio-politiska geografi i Finland, Norge och Sverige
Abstract [en]

This thesis analysis the planning process for large-scale wind power development in Finland, Norway and Sweden. The aim is to explore the emerging power relations and socio-economic dynamics of the negotiation, planning and realization of this new development. The thesis employs an energy justice framework to capture the opportunities different stakeholders have to take part in and influence wind power development processes (‘procedural justice’), and how the potential benefits and burdens of wind power development are divided between stakeholders (‘distributional justice’). The study’s setup is an embedded sequential mixed methods research design, which includes analysis of policy documents, in-dept interviews, observations, as well as register based population data.

The thesis shows how power relations on both a structural level and an actor level are used to exert power and influence over the planning process for wind power development. On a structural level, the results indicate that transformations in EU directives and national planning laws and guidelines in Finland, Norway and Sweden in recent years have been more focused on speed and efficiency in planning processes than on legitimacy issues. The changes that have been implemented seem to point to diminishing opportunities for broad participation and debate in wind power planning processes, in favour of more top-down processes with a specific, sectoral focus on developing wind power. On the actor level, perceived improper behaviour by different actors within the planning process can further limit the possibilities for participation. People refrain from participating in planning processes, for instance, if they feel that they are treated disrespectfully or if there have occurred procedural errors that undermine the legitimacy of the formal planning process. However, participation in formal planning processes is not the only way to influence planning processes. There are a number of more informal channels, such as using the media or the Internet, lobbying, or rallying local support, that can and have been used by stakeholders to tap into the formal planning process to try to affect its outcomes. Such informal activities have a considerable spatial and scalar reach, the importance of which is that stakeholders utilizing such measures have the possibility to affect not only the local wind power project under debate, but also developments in other places and attitudes towards wind power more generally.

As concerns distributional issues, the results of the thesis show that the evidence of distributional inequality concerning wind power development on the national scale in Sweden is not very strong; but if such inequalities exist, there are possibilities to redistribute the benefits from wind power to those who are burdened by the developments. Distributional injustice related to wind power development is thus not an evident problem, generally speaking, in Sweden today. However, if this state is to remain, procedural aspects related to the continued development of wind power need to be kept in mind, as procedural and distributional inequalities are intimately related. Of specific concern is the need to address formal and informal procedures that marginalize stakeholder participation in planning processes, but it is equally important to also consider who is to be included in or excluded from negotiations and the distribution of local economic benefits connected to specific wind power projects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2017. p. 117
Series
GERUM, ISSN 1402-5205 ; 2017:1
Keywords
wind power, planning, land use, participation, power relations, energy justice, mixed methods, Finland, Norway, Sweden
National Category
Human Geography
Research subject
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-129867 (URN)881251 (Local ID)978-91-7601-643-5 (ISBN)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Public defence
2017-01-27, S205H, Samhällsvetarhuset, Umeå, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-01-13 Created: 2017-01-09 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text in DiVA

Other links

Publisher's full text

Authority records BETA

Liljenfeldt, JohannaPettersson, Örjan

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Liljenfeldt, JohannaPettersson, Örjan
By organisation
Department of Geography and Economic History
In the same journal
Energy Policy
Human Geography

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 439 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf