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Retinoid receptors in bone and their in bone remodeling
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Centre for Bone and Arthritis Research, Institute for Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
2015 (English)In: Frontiers in Endocrinology, ISSN 1664-2392, E-ISSN 1664-2392, Vol. 6, 31Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Vitamin A (retinol) is a necessary and important constituent of the body which is provided by food intake of retinyl esters and carotenoids. Vitamin A is known best for being important for vision, but in addition to the eye, vitamin A is necessary in numerous other organs in the body, including the skeleton. Vitamin A is converted to an active compound, all-transretinoic acid (ATRA), which is responsible for most of its biological actions. ATRA binds to intracellular nuclear receptors called retinoic acid receptors (RAR alpha, RAR beta, RAR gamma). RARs and closely related retinoid X receptors (RXR alpha, RXR beta, RXR gamma) form heterodimers which bind to DNA and function as ligand-activated transcription factors. It has been known for many years that hypervitaminosis A promotes skeleton fragility by increasing osteoclast formation and decreasing cortical bone mass. Some epidemiological studies have suggested that increased intake of vitamin A and increased serum levels of retinoids may decrease bone mineral density and increase fracture rate, but the literature on this is not conclusive. The current review summarizes how vitamin A is taken up by the intestine, metabolized, stored in the liver, and processed to ATRA. ATRAs effects on formation and activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts are outlined, and a summary of clinical data pertaining to vitamin A and bone is presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 6, 31
Keyword [en]
vitamin A, retinoids, osteoclast, osteoblast, osteoporosis
National Category
Dentistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-129895DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2015.00031ISI: 000378396000001PubMedID: 25814978OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-129895DiVA: diva2:1063415
Available from: 2017-01-10 Created: 2017-01-10 Last updated: 2017-01-10Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
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  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
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  • en-US
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  • nn-NB
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  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
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  • asciidoc
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