Income Inequality & Risky Gambling in Sweden: A Multilevel Analysis: The Swedish National Public Health Survey 2014
Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Objectives: This study aims to measure the association between demographic, social, and behavioural risk factors with risky gambling in Northern Sweden. Specifically, to measure the effect of compositional and contextual factors and to assess whether or not individual and municipality income inequality plays a role in individuals’ decision on risky gambling behaviour.
Methods: A cross-sectional multilevel study was conducted using data drawn from the Swedish National Public Health Survey 2014. The sample consisted of 25,667 individuals aged 16-85 years, nested within 44 municipalities of the four northern Swedish counties. A series of four multilevel logistic regression models were performed in the pooled population and stratified by sex.
Results: The prevalence of risky gambling was 3.4% in the total population, 2.6% among women, and 4.3% among men. A significant association was found between risky gambling and being a man, of young age, single, born outside Sweden, of low income, having a risky lifestyle and living in suburban to a major city municipally. The findings indicate that there is an association between individual income inequality and risky gambling in both men and women. However, the association between municipality income inequality and risky gambling was not supported by the results. Multilevel analysis showed an equal effect of contextual and compositional factors in pooled data, but when stratified by sex, men's clustering was mainly explained by area variables while women's clustering was largely explained by individual compositions.
Conclusion: Taken together, the results suggest that the prevalence and patterns of dominant explanatory factors associated with risky gambling at individual and contextual level differ between genders. This variation should be taken into consideration when designing and implementing policies aiming to reduce the exposure of the disadvantaged population to risky gambling, as well as to reduce their vulnerability and the unequal consequences they face.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. , 43 p.
Centre for Public Health Report Series, ISSN 1651-341x ; 2016:34
Income Inequality, Risky Gambling, Northern Sweden
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-131689OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-131689DiVA: diva2:1075291
Master's Programme in Public Health
2016-05-23, Umeå Universitet, Umeå, 16:02 (English)
Mosquera Mendez, Paola, Postdoc
Lindholm, Lars, Professor