Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE credits
Tanning beds emit short, energetic and harmful rays, UV-A and UV-B which leads to various ocular and skin diseases; moreover, DNA damage and the initiation of carcinogenic changes are associated with regular use of it. Basal cell carcinoma and melanoma incidence rate have been rapidly increasing over a few decades due to unregulated consumption of solar bed. It has been classified as carcinogenic device and different organizations regularly advice for the prohibition of it. Despite the proven association of ocular and skin diseases and cancer from the large epidemiological data solar bed consumption is not degraded; furthermore, tanning bed has been developed as a culture in the modern western world. The exploration of tanning bed displayed that it is interconnected with the ancient sun worshippers, an advent of vitamin D and carbon arc lamps with quartz lens, heliotherapy clinics and to the modern sun stimulated indoor tanning. This scoping review provides a broad understanding of the reasons behind the popularity and the current consumption of indoor tanning bed.
The aim of our study is to analyse and summarize the factors that contribute to the practice of indoor tanning beds in an overall population; furthermore, attitudes, perception, belief, behaviour and motivation factors of indoor tanners were undertaken to explore and find gaps in the existing literatures.
By using a scoping review twenty articles both qualitative and quantitative were identified and selected from the Umeå University Library website by using only one database, “Web of Science TM Core Collection Studies (v.5.21)” during the months of March and April 2016. Boolean logic was used to identify both qualitative and quantitative studies with keywords such as “Indoor tanning”, “Tanning bed”, “Qualitative Study”, “attitude”, “belief”, “behaviour”, “motivation” and “perception”. The relevant articles that were published and written only in English language and free to download a full copy of the articles through the Umeå University Library website and without any financial transactions and contacts with organizations and authors were included. In terms of population, our target study group is broad which includes both male and female population who are active and passive users of the tanning beds. The age of the participants in our study range from 11 years to 94 years.
Seven themes are reported to be the main reasons behind the consumption of carcinogenic tanning bed. These are: - (1) Modern Healthism, (2) Influence from family and friends, (3) Social occasions and holidays, (4) Physical and Mental Gain, (5) Complex cognition, (6) Addiction and (7) Tactful marketing. Modern healthism, tanning industries and salon’s tactful marketing help to set up image-based modern norms, attractive, healthy golden brown skin, in societal level influencing families and friends, which further develops indoor tanning as a culture and beautifying practice during special events like social occasions and holidays. The cognition regarding physical and mental gain perceived from an individual and societal perspective and contradictory findings from ongoing researches with respect to the hazards of solar beds create complex cognition among active and passive tanners, like ambivalence, cognitive dissonance, temporal discounting, rationalization and optimistic bias. However, in the adolescent phase, there is increasing consumption of the tanning beds which can be further explained by complex cognitive, the adolescent egocentrism. The complex cognition enhances the regular use of addictive tanning bed which further leads to dependence and skin cancers or the diseases of the eyes and the skin.
Conclusions: Consumption of risky tanning bed has been developed as a culture or beauty norms that are still ingrained in the mind of tanners, i.e., golden brown tanned skin is attractive, which is created under the influence of modern healthism. The reasons behind the use of carcinogenic solar bed can be well explained by the concepts of cognitive science and psychology, i.e., ambivalence, adolescent egocentrism, cognitive dissonance, temporal discounting, rationalization, optimistic bias, and addiction. In order to tackle with solar bed dependence and its health related hazards, health workers should develop and implement promotive and preventive health programs which incorporate social norms and factors, tanner’s cognition and psychology. Policy makers and health actors should ban solar beds or avoid the use of it in the minors, i.e., under 18 years through embracing the evidence suggested by epidemiological studies.
2016. , 46 p.