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A review of substitute CT generation for MRI-only radiation therapy
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University.
2017 (English)In: Radiation Oncology, ISSN 1748-717X, E-ISSN 1748-717X, Vol. 12, 28Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Radiotherapy based on magnetic resonance imaging as the sole modality (MRI-only RT) is an area of growing scientific interest due to the increasing use of MRI for both target and normal tissue delineation and the development of MR based delivery systems. One major issue in MRI-only RT is the assignment of electron densities (ED) to MRI scans for dose calculation and a similar need for attenuation correction can be found for hybrid PET/MR systems. The ED assigned MRI scan is here named a substitute CT (sCT). In this review, we report on a collection of typical performance values for a number of main approaches encountered in the literature for sCT generation as compared to CT. A literature search in the Scopus database resulted in 254 papers which were included in this investigation. A final number of 50 contributions which fulfilled all inclusion criteria were categorized according to applied method, MRI sequence/contrast involved, number of subjects included and anatomical site investigated. The latter included brain, torso, prostate and phantoms. The contributions geometric and/or dosimetric performance metrics were also noted. The majority of studies are carried out on the brain for 5-10 patients with PET/MR applications in mind using a voxel based method. T1 weighted images are most commonly applied. The overall dosimetric agreement is in the order of 0.3-2.5%. A strict gamma criterion of 1% and 1mm has a range of passing rates from 68 to 94% while less strict criteria show pass rates > 98%. The mean absolute error (MAE) is between 80 and 200 HU for the brain and around 40 HU for the prostate. The Dice score for bone is between 0.5 and 0.95. The specificity and sensitivity is reported in the upper 80s% for both quantities and correctly classified voxels average around 84%. The review shows that a variety of promising approaches exist that seem clinical acceptable even with standard clinical MRI sequences. A consistent reference frame for method benchmarking is probably necessary to move the field further towards a widespread clinical implementation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2017. Vol. 12, 28
National Category
Cancer and Oncology Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-132138DOI: 10.1186/s13014-016-0747-yISI: 000392986500002PubMedID: 28126030OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-132138DiVA: diva2:1079653
Available from: 2017-03-09 Created: 2017-03-09 Last updated: 2017-03-09Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
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