Screening of biocides, metals and antibiotics in Swedish sewage sludge and wastewater
2017 (English)In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 115, 318-328 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract Incoming sewage water, treated effluent and digested sludge were collected from 11 Swedish sewage treatment plants (STPs) on 3 different days. Analytical protocols were established for a large number of compounds (47) with antimicrobial properties and the collected samples were then screened for the presence of these selected substances. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to analyse the samples. Thirty organic compounds and 10 metals were detected above their respective detection limit. Quaternary ammonium compounds were the most abundant substances in the particulate phases with levels up to 370 μg/g and benzotriazoles were the most common in the aqueous phases with levels up to 24 μg/L. Several compounds with no, or very limited, previously reported data were detected in this study, including chlorhexidine, hexadecylpyridinium chloride and 10-benzalkonium chloride. Some of these were both frequently detected (>60% detection frequency) and found in high levels (up to 19 μg/g d.w. sludge). This study gives a comprehensive overview of the presence in Swedish STPs of a number of antimicrobial substances, providing crucial information in designing relevant studies on potential microbial co- and cross resistance development between antibiotics, biocides, and metals in the sewage system.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017. Vol. 115, 318-328 p.
Biocides, Antimicrobial, Antibiotics, Sewage water, Sludge, Wastewater
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-132432DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2017.03.011OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-132432DiVA: diva2:1081358