In vitro toxicity of piperazine-derived designer drugs in differentiated neural cell lines
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Piperazine derivatives are common ingredients in recreational “party pills” which are used to provide a stimulant, euphoric effect akin to that of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”). There is a potential for significant toxicity associated with the use of these compounds, and the aim of the present study was to investigate if the common piperazine derivatives N-benzylpiperazine (BZP), 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP), 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (MeOPP) and 1-(4-fluorophenyl)piperazine (pFPP), were toxic to retinoic acid-treated neuronally differentiated mouse P19 embryonic carcinoma stem cells and differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Immunofluorescence of the neuron-specific protein βIII-tubulin, fluorescence of intracellular calcein, assays of mitochondrial membrane potential (∆ψm), MTT reduction and extracellular levels of LDH were used to estimate concentration-dependent cell toxicity of the piperazine derivatives and MDMA. All piperazine derivatives were toxic to the P19 neurons, but TFMPP was the most potent cytotoxic compound, producing a major decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, cellular MTT reduction and fluorescence of calcein and βIII-tubulin, with a simultaneous increase in LDH release. The toxicity of piperazine derivatives is not restricted to differentiated P19 cells, since BZP and TFMPP were also cytotoxic in SH-SY5Y cells and human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells.
piperazine derivatives, MDMA, neuronal cell cultures, neurotoxicity
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Research subject Toxicology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-133028OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-133028DiVA: diva2:1085433