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-Måste det här vara som en väckelserörelse?: en studie om (det som kallas) entreprenöriellt lärande i grundskolan, utifrån Basil Bernsteins begreppsapparat
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8864-7199
2017 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
-Does this have to be like a revival movement? : a study on (what is called) entrepreneurial learning in compulsory school based on the conceptual framework of Basil Bernstein (English)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this compilation thesis is to describe prerequisites for what, in a Swedish educational context, is often called ‘entrepreneurial learning’ and to examine the possible influence that this has on school practice. The study was carried out in two lower secondary schools and was guided by the following two research questions. First, how is entrepreneurial learning reflected in educational practice regarding teaching, learning and assessment? Second, how has the phenomenon of entrepreneurship been recontextualized in educational discourse through politics and policy? Basil Bernstein’s concepts and theories have consistently been the point of departure for analysis. Altogether, 52 classroom observations were made, particularly focusing on the subjects of social science, science and mathematics. In addition, 8 individual interviews with teachers and 15 group interviews with pupils were conducted. For decades, national and international policy documents have promoted the need for a creative, innovative and flexible future working force; bringing this about has highly involved the education system. In Sweden, entrepreneurship was inscribed in the curriculum in 2011, and it is meant to run like a thread throughout education. In this study the broad approach of entrepreneurship in education, which is about generating an entrepreneurial mindset, is focused. Research points out various difficulties and dilemmas regarding the implementation of entrepreneurial learning. These difficulties and dilemmas are connected to concerns about perceived difficulties in relation to differences in school subjects, pupils’ backgrounds, degree of managerial support and/or collegial consensus and cooperation. The main findings are linked to recurrent difficulties regarding teaching methods and assessments in relation to entrepreneurial learning. Curricula and syllabi express explicit learning outcomes, which both teachers and learners perceive as being challenging to combine with entrepreneurial classroom work. This in turn links to an aspect which is often addressed in research—that is, the question about whether to use traditional or entrepreneurial (progressive) teaching methods. Curricula express a need for both, and teachers often find it difficult to find a functioning balance between them, not least because of current societal discussions and demands. In many respects, the implementation of entrepreneurial learning sends mixed messages. On the one hand, pupils are meant to develop entrepreneurial skills and competencies through cooperation and interaction within groups, and, on the other hand, the essence of entrepreneurship indicates competition; this is yet another dilemma addressed in the study. The study shows that, due to the schools’ different prerequisites regarding, for instance, teachers’ approaches and understandings and the schools’ catchment areas, entrepreneurial learning is performed somewhat different. Bernstein’s concepts and theories offer tools to explain and understand different aspects, including dilemmas and difficulties in relation to both classroom practice and social discourse.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2017. , 112 p.
Series
Akademiska avhandlingar vid Pedagogiska institutionen, Umeå universitet, ISSN 0281-6768 ; 123
Series
Umeå Studies in the Educational Sciences, 22
Keyword [en]
Entrepreneurial learning, lower secondary school, recontextualisation, Basil Bernstein, education, teaching, learning, assessment, classification, framing
Keyword [sv]
Entreprenöriellt lärande, grundskolan, rekontextualisering, Basil Bernstein, utbildning, undervisning, lärande, bedömning, klassifikation, inramning
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-133037ISBN: 978-91-7601-694-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-133037DiVA: diva2:1085562
Public defence
2017-04-28, Nbvh 1031, Norra beteendevetarhuset, Umeå, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Ifocus - innovation, forskning och utveckling i skola och förskola, 218010400
Available from: 2017-04-06 Created: 2017-03-29 Last updated: 2017-04-21Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The Impact of Classification and Framing in Entrepreneurial Education: Field Observations in Two Lower Secondary Schools
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Impact of Classification and Framing in Entrepreneurial Education: Field Observations in Two Lower Secondary Schools
2015 (English)In: Universal Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 2332-3205, Vol. 3, no 8, 489-501 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article’s purpose is to examine, on the basis of Bernstein’s theory of classification and framing, how teachers express the concept and content of entrepreneurship in classroom practices in two Swedish lower secondary schools. The study is part of a national school improvement program aiming to better understand, develop and encourage entrepreneurial education and learning. The broad perspective of entrepreneurial education is used in Swedish compulsory school and thereby in this study. In 2011 the curriculum was reversed, which meant, in addition to introducing entrepreneurship, adding focus on learning outcomes. The data sample is based on observation and field notes. The results show differences between the schools and subjects.  The classification is strong in both schools, but the framing differs. Differences in framing are based on characteristics of individual teachers, and to some extent subjects, rather than schools. Together with other circumstances - such as teachers’ views and knowledge, school organization and subject division - the task can be perceived as challenging.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Horizon Research Publishing, 2015
Keyword
Entrepreneurial Education, Classification, Framing, Collection Code, Integrated Code, Lower Secondary School
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-108025 (URN)10.13189/ ujer.2015.030803 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-09-01 Created: 2015-09-01 Last updated: 2017-04-05Bibliographically approved
2. From Entrepreneurship to Entrepreneurial Education in Lower Secondary School: pedagogising by Means of the Pedagogic Device
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From Entrepreneurship to Entrepreneurial Education in Lower Secondary School: pedagogising by Means of the Pedagogic Device
2016 (English)In: Journal of Educational Issues, ISSN 0022-0701, E-ISSN 2377-2263, Vol. 2, no 1, 36-56 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study is part of a school improvement programme on entrepreneurial education and investigates teachers’ understanding and transmission of entrepreneurial education in two Swedish lower secondary schools, through interviews and observations. Entrepreneurship is a well-established concept within capitalist society, but the interest here is to investigate the transmission of it into pedagogic discourse and communication. Bernstein’s concept of the pedagogic device is used to reason on the process of what happens, and why, when the concept of entrepreneurship is transformed into entrepreneurial education. The results indicate different understandings and connotations on a deeper level, and also show that transmission to colleagues and pupils faces a series of challenges. In practise, the findings show different approaches to entrepreneurial education among individual teachers, but also between schools. This can be explained by gaps in the transmitting process, but also by different school cultures and diverse forms of collegial collaboration, which may affect transmission among colleagues and thus the transmission to pupils. Pupils’ backgrounds may also have an impact on the differences.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Macrothink Institute, 2016
Keyword
Transformation, Entrepreneurial education, Lower secondary school, Pedagogic device
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-114718 (URN)10.5296/jei.v2i1.8748 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-01-26 Created: 2016-01-26 Last updated: 2017-03-29Bibliographically approved
3. Teachers' and learners' experiences of entrepreneurial education: practice and challenges in relation to visible and invisible pedagogy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teachers' and learners' experiences of entrepreneurial education: practice and challenges in relation to visible and invisible pedagogy
2016 (English)In: Problems of Education in the 21st Century, ISSN 1822-7864, Vol. 73, no 73, 27-44 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Entrepreneurial education is described as gaining abilities that enable the future workforce to develop, be part of and adapt to the changing society. International policy texts, from for instance the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the European Commission, agree that entrepreneurial abilities are to be taught and learned in school. Even if this has been on the agenda for decades, it wasn't inscribed in the Swedish curricula until 2011. This research focuses on lower secondary schools and what is called the broad approach or entrepreneurial education. To foster entrepreneurially, different progressive theories of instruction are often suggested. Basil Bernstein has outlined two generic forms of instructional theories: visible and invisible pedagogy; visible pedagogy can be described as "traditional", while invisible pedagogy requires progressive teaching and learning. Based on classroom observations, interviews with teachers and learners, this study elaborates on these concepts in relation to experiences of entrepreneurial education. Different challenges, due to contradictory messages in curricula, learners' backgrounds and experiences, as well as teachers' approaches, are revealed. The study suggests that, even though more or less ambitious attempts are being made, "pure" entrepreneurial education is difficult to enable in a practice where visible pedagogy is the standard educational practice.

Keyword
entrepreneurial education, lower secondary school, teachers' and learners' experiences, parental background, visible and invisible pedagogy
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-128027 (URN)
Available from: 2016-11-22 Created: 2016-11-22 Last updated: 2017-03-29Bibliographically approved
4. Competence and/or Performance: Assessment and Entrepreneurial Teaching and Learning in Two Swedish Lower Secondary Schools
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Competence and/or Performance: Assessment and Entrepreneurial Teaching and Learning in Two Swedish Lower Secondary Schools
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, ISSN 1694-2493, E-ISSN 1694-2116, Vol. 16, no 1, 135-160 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Entrepreneurial teaching and learning, thus entrepreneurial education corresponds well with formative assessment/assessment for learning. Both are characterised by an approach to education, teaching, and learning, which puts pupils in the centre of their own learning. Learning aims to "go deep" and generate "real learning" where competencies rather than measurable results are the focus. Both entrepreneurial education, and assessment for learning are promoted by the Swedish National Agency for Education. Entrepreneurial education has been inscribed in the national curriculum for Swedish compulsory schools since 2011. The same curriculum and syllabuses also focus on several knowledge requirements, which form the basis for assessing pupils' performances. Thus, the Swedish national curriculum can be said to send two rather disparate messages. This research focuses on lower secondary school and the broad approach of entrepreneurial education and uses Basil Bernstein’s theory of performance and competence models to elaborate on entrepreneurial teaching and learning in relation to assessment. Observations along with interviews with teachers and pupils in two Swedish lower secondary schools provide the empirical basis for the research. The results reveal some differences between the schools but indicate that both teachers and pupils are relating to the prevailing dominance of performance models and thus encounter difficulties when trying to adopt entrepreneurial education and assessment for learning.

Keyword
entrepreneurial education, formative assessment, knowledge forms, lower secondary school, performance model, competence model
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-131408 (URN)
Available from: 2017-02-14 Created: 2017-02-14 Last updated: 2017-03-29Bibliographically approved

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