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Non-Formal Vocational Education and Training in Mozambique: Contexts, policies, pedagogies and contradictions
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Education and training in Mozambique are considered to be a ‘right’ and a ‘duty’ for all its citizens. Non-Formal Vocational Education and Training (NFVET) has been promoted to increase educational opportunities for more citizens, particularly the most vulnerable groups- the out of school and unemployed.

The aim of this study is to gain a deeper insight into NFVET in Mozambique, explore its context and historical development, and to identify factors that could contribute to the improvement of this area of education. It is a qualitative, exploratory study carried out in Mozambique. Semi-structured interviews, focus group interviews, non-participant observations, analysis of both printed and electronic documents and life story narratives of research participants were used as methods of data collection. The theories and concepts of adult education and Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) constituted the theoretical framework of the study.

The findings of the study reveal that NFVET is highly relevant in the context of change and development in Mozambique. This area of education plays an increasingly relevant role in helping people to continually improve their skills and contributes to their empowerment and social inclusion. However, contextual factors such as lack of resources, teachers’ poor professional competencies and weak linkages between the training programmes and the labour market constitute the main barriers for the attainment of the objectives of these programmes.

The study concludes that framework and activities of NFVET need to be improved. This improvement includes strengthening existing policies, the need for the professionalisation of educators by enhancing their competencies and the improvement of their working conditions. Further, the development and provision of new curriculum and material taking into account the learners’ needs, the local context and the demands of the labour market are needed. The establishment of functional partnerships between NFVET providers and systematic participative evaluation of the training programmes are also suggested to ensure the quality and sustainability of the programmes.

 

Abstract [sv]

I Moçambique ses utbildning både som en rättighet och en skyldighet för alla medborgare. Regeringen har infört obligatorisk grundskola för alla barn med målsättningen att utrota analfabetism. Olika initiativ och policys har implementerats för att nå målet, men ändå exkluderas många barn, ungdomar och vuxna, i synnerhet i landsbygdsområden. Enbart formell utbildning kan inte svara mot den ökade efterfrågan av utbildning i Moçambique. Därför har icke-formell utbildning (non-formal education; NFE) lyfts fram som ett sätt att öka möjligheterna för utbildning för fler medborgare, speciellt i de mest utsatta grupperna (de som inte går i skolan eller är arbetslösa).

Syftet med den här studien är att få djupare insikt i icke-formell yrkesutbildning (NFVET) i Moçambique; att utforska dess kontext och historiska utveckling, samt att identifiera faktorer som skulle kunna bidra till att förbättra denna typ av utbildning. Studien är kvalitativ och explorativ och utförd i Moçambique. För datainsamlingen användes semistrukturerade intervjuer, fokusgruppintervjuer, icke-deltagande observationer, analys av tryckta och elektroniska dokument samt försökspersoners livsberättelser. Studien grundas i de teoretiska och begreppsliga ramverken av vuxenutbildning och kulturhistorisk verksamhetsteori (CHAT). Ramverken har bidragit till analys och förståelse av NFVET, dess historiska utveckling samt dess motsägelser och utmaningar.

Resultaten visar att NFVET utgör ett mycket viktigt bidrag till utbildningen i Moçambique i en tid av ekonomisk och social utveckling. Den snabba ekonomiska och sociala utvecklingen gör så att det uppkommer ett brett spektrum av utbildningsmöjligheter, och NFVET är ett av dessa. Utbildningsområdet spelar en allt viktigare roll i att hjälpa människor att ständigt förbättra sina färdigheter och bidra till deras delaktighet och sociala integration. Men kontextuella faktorer såsom brist på resurser, bristande lärarkompetens och svaga kopplingar mellan utbildningsprogram och arbetsmarknad utgör de huvudsakliga hindren för att uppnå målen för dessa program.

Slutsatsen är att många NFVET-aktiviteter måste förbättras. Förändringar bör omfatta förstärkning av nuvarande policys, professionalisering av lärare genom kompetensutveckling och förbättring av lärares arbetsvillkor. Vidare behövs det förbättring av de befintliga styrdokumenten och läromedel med hänsyn till de deltagarnas behov, kontexten och den efterfrågan som finns på arbetsmarknaden. Slutligen föreslås inrättande av funktionella partnerskap mellan NFVET-leverantörer och systematisk uppföljning av programmen för att säkerställa dess kvalitet och hållbarhet.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University , 2017. , 60 p.
Series
Doktorsavhandlingar i pedagogiskt arbete, ISSN 1650-8858 ; 76
Keyword [en]
Adult education, Cultural Historical Activity Theory, empowerment, life skills, Non-Formal Education, professionalisation, vocational education and training
Keyword [sv]
Vuxenutbildning, kulturhistorisk aktivitetsteiri, egenmakt, livskunskap, icke-formell utbildning, professionalisering, yrkesutbildning
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-134365ISBN: 978-91-7601-704-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-134365DiVA: diva2:1092718
Public defence
2017-06-01, KB3A9, KBC huset, Linnaeus väg 6, 901 87, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-05-10 Created: 2017-05-03 Last updated: 2017-05-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Vocational Literacy in Mozambique: Historical Development, Current Challenges and Contradictions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vocational Literacy in Mozambique: Historical Development, Current Challenges and Contradictions
2016 (English)In: Literacy and Numeracy Studies: An international journal in the education and training of adults, ISSN 1441-0559, E-ISSN 1839-2903, Vol. 24, no 1, 23-42 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The study analyses the historical development of vocational literacy in basic education and Non-Formal Vocational Education (NFVE) in Mozambique, as well as current challenges and contradictions. The theoretical lens of Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) is employed in the study. Methodologically the study was executed through an analysis of oral, printed and e-resources produced by the main stakeholders and also the reflective experiences of the authors in their extensive educational work in the country. The findings reveal poorly developed vocational literacy education in schools and non-formal settings in spite of recurrent political declarations about its importance. There is a strong dependence by formal and particularly NFVE sectors on the technical and financial support provided by international organisations. Vocational literacy courses are characterized by a lack of adequate equipment and poor practice. As a consequence, theoretical or elementary forms of vocational knowledge are dominant in the courses, resulting in the dissatisfaction of both learners and educators. Vocational literacy development proved to be a complex field that faces many challenges and is characterised by diverse internal contradictions.

Keyword
vocational literacy, Cultural-Historical Activity Theory, contradictions
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-119215 (URN)10.5130/lns.v24i1.4899 (DOI)000372437300003 ()
Available from: 2016-04-13 Created: 2016-04-13 Last updated: 2017-05-08Bibliographically approved
2. The challenges of adult education policy implementation in Mozambique
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The challenges of adult education policy implementation in Mozambique
2016 (English)In: Problems of Education in the 21st Century, ISSN 1822-7864, E-ISSN 2538-7111, Vol. 71, no 71, 53-61 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The current socio-economic development in Mozambique is characterized by growing social inequalities, in particular concerning the imbalanced access to education and the increased poverty of women and the unemployed. Adult education is a way to provide youth and adults with opportunities to improve their knowledge and skills. Through education they can gain power and they can learn how to cope with social and economic challenges. The purpose of this research is to examine how far policies concerning adult education, especially with respect to Non-Formal Vocational Education and Training (NFVET) are implemented. The research is qualitative in nature, based on document analysis with a focus on the policies that have guided the implementation of adult education and training in Mozambique during the period 2000-2015. The findings reveal that Mozambique has been strongly influenced by international initiatives within the framework of ‘Education for all’ and ‘Education for development’. There is an apparent need to strengthen policy implementation strategies, particularly in the area of NFVET in order to ensure the real empowerment of learners and teachers.

Keyword
adult education, activity theory, power and development, policy implementation, contradictions
National Category
Pedagogy Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124241 (URN)
Available from: 2016-07-29 Created: 2016-07-29 Last updated: 2017-05-08Bibliographically approved
3. Exploring gender differences in participants’ motivations and expectations in non-formal vocational education and training programmes in Mozambique
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring gender differences in participants’ motivations and expectations in non-formal vocational education and training programmes in Mozambique
2016 (English)In: Contemporary Issues and Perspectives on Gender Research in Adult Education / [ed] Maja Maksimović, Joanna Ostrouch-Kamińska, Katarina Popović, Aleksandar Bulajić, Belgrade: University of Belgrade , 2016, 225-237 p.Conference paper, (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Non-Formal Education in Mozambique is considered to be one of the ways to open up opportunities for education and training for youth and adults. Mozambique has great gender disparities in post-elementary and vocational education. In this study, semi-structured interviews and life stories were used to explore gender differences in participants’ motivations and expectations in Non-Formal Vocational Education and Training (NFVET) in Mozambique. Fourteen participants and six former participants of two NFVET programmes were involved in the study. The findings showed that both men and women acknowledge that NFVET programmes can help them to improve their life chances. However, there were clear gender differences. Women focus on improving the lives of their families as the main objective of participating in NFVET, while men prioritise their own professional growth. Men see their own needs as the family needs. In the discussion of findings a need to challenge gender inequalities in Mozambique is addressed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Belgrade: University of Belgrade, 2016
Keyword
gender, power, inequality, emancipation, non-formal vocational education
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-127014 (URN)978-86-80712-00-0 (ISBN)978-86-80712-01-7 (ISBN)
Conference
Contemporary Issues and Perspectives on Gender Research in Adult Education. History, Philosophy, Methodology and Practice, Belgrade, October 8-10, 2015.
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
Available from: 2016-10-25 Created: 2016-10-25 Last updated: 2017-05-08Bibliographically approved
4. Educators in non-formal vocational education and training in Mozambique: a plea for recognition and professionalisation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Educators in non-formal vocational education and training in Mozambique: a plea for recognition and professionalisation
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Lifelong Education, ISSN 0260-1370, E-ISSN 1464-519X, Vol. 36, no 3, 324-338 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Interest in vocational education and training (VET) is growing. This can be attributed to global socio-economic developments requiring continuously changing knowledge and skills. Adult education and training, particularly in non-formal education (NFE) contributes to provide these skills and knowledge for youth and adults. This puts pressure not only on programmes and facilities, but also on the educators. How do they cope with the changing demands? This paper focuses on educators in non-formal vocational education and training (NFVET) in Mozambique. It explores the perceptions, experiences and reflections of educators in NFVET working in training centres on the outskirts of Maputo. Semi-structured interviews and observations were used to get insight into the educators’ understandings and into the conditions in which their educational activities took place. The findings point to the need for the professionalisation of NFVET educators. This would contribute to the quality of their activities and to their status as professionals.

Keyword
Adult education, non-formal vocational education and training, competencies, professionalisation
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-126470 (URN)10.1080/02601370.2016.1241311 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-10-07 Created: 2016-10-07 Last updated: 2017-05-11Bibliographically approved
5. Towards programme improvement in non-formal vocational education and training in Mozambique
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards programme improvement in non-formal vocational education and training in Mozambique
2015 (English)In: Problems of Education in the 21st Century, ISSN 1822-7864, Vol. 67, 61-71 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The current situation of Mozambique, characterized by limited but highly needed Formal Vocational Education, demands the development and improvement of Non-formal Vocational Education and Training (NFVET). NFVET can provide relevant knowledge and skills, particularly for out of school and unemployed youth and adults to promote social inclusion and development. This is a qualitative case study with some elements of action research. Semi-structured interviews with six educators, classroom observations and two focus group interviews with former participants were implemented. The research aims to explore ways by which NFVET programmes can be improved in order to increase people’s chances, not only to get work, but also to be able to participate actively in their own process of development. The findings suggest some directions for the improvement of NFVET in Mozambique in order to empower people to actively participate in the social and economic life of their local communities and broader society.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PEC, 2015
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-114484 (URN)
Available from: 2016-01-20 Created: 2016-01-20 Last updated: 2017-05-08Bibliographically approved

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