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Longitudinal associations between athletes' controlled motivation, ill being, and perceptions of controlling coach behaviors: A Bayesian latent growth curve approach
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
2017 (English)In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 30, 205-214 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although many scholars have argued that leadership is a dynamic process jointly produced by leaders and followers, leadership in sports is most often researched as a unidirectional process from coaches to athletes. Within self-determination theory (SDT), individual characteristics are suggested to influence how people perceive external events such as coaches' behaviors. In the present study, we examined this jointly produced leadership process by investigating longitudinal associations between athletes' controlled motivation, ill-being, and perceptions of coaches' controlling behaviors at the between- and within-person levels. The participants were 247 young elite skiers enrolled at Swedish sport high schools who responded to self-report questionnaires at three time points over the course of an athletic season. At the between-person level, increases in perceptions of coaches' controlling behaviors over the season positively predicted controlled motivation at the end of the season, and controlled motivation at the beginning of the season positively predicted ill-being at the end of the season. At the within-person level, athletes' controlled motivation positively predicted perceptions of coaches' controlling behaviors. The results at the between-person level support the unidirectional perspective and the tenets of SDT. The results at the within-person level suggest that individual characteristics such as motivation can influence how athletes perceive external events, which has been proposed theoretically but seldom examined empirically. Three plausible explanations for this reversed association are presented in the discussion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 30, 205-214 p.
Keyword [en]
Bayesian estimation, Depression/anxiety, Growth models, Interpersonal control, Leadership, Sports, CI EL, 1987, JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, V53, P1024 nsdale Chris, 2011, MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE, V43, P913
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-135274DOI: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.03.002ISI: 000400038900023OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-135274DiVA: diva2:1098745
Note

Originally published in manuscript form

Available from: 2017-05-26 Created: 2017-05-26 Last updated: 2017-05-26Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Sports coaches’ interpersonal motivating styles: longitudinal associations, change, and multidimensionality
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sports coaches’ interpersonal motivating styles: longitudinal associations, change, and multidimensionality
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Ett motiverande ledarskap : multidimensionalitet och longitudinella samband med idrottares motivation och välbefinnande
Abstract [en]

Coaches play a central role in shaping the sport environment for young athletes. This thesis is focused on the leadership process in sports and how coaches’ autonomy-supportive and controlling interpersonal styles longitudinally are related to young athletes’ motivation and ill- and well-being. The aim is also to examine psychometric multidimensionality in measures of coaches’ need-supportive and controlling interpersonal styles. Questionnaire data from young athletes were used in the empirical studies. In Study 1, we examined an adaptive motivational process (i.e., longitudinal associations between autonomy support, need satisfaction, self-determined motivation, and well-being). The results showed that within-person changes in perceived autonomy support, need satisfaction, self-determined motivation, and well-being were all positively correlated. Higher self-determined motivation and well-being early in the season longitudinally predicted higher levels of perceived autonomy support from the coach. Higher self-determined motivation was also a positive predictor of within-person changes in perceived autonomy support and well-being over the season. In Study 2, we examined a maladaptive motivational process (i.e., longitudinal associations between coaches’ controlling behaviors, controlled motivation, and ill-being). The findings demonstrated that athletes who perceived their coach as more controlling reported higher controlled motivation at the end of the season and that higher controlled motivation early in the season predicted higher ill-being at the end of the season. Controlled motivation was also a positive predictor of athletes’ perceptions of coaches’ controlling behaviors at the within-person level. Study 1 and 2 suggest that individual factors (e.g., motivation and well-being) seemed to function as important determinants of how athletes perceived their coach and future research should explore the underlying mechanisms through which these processes occur. In Study 3, we examined psychometric multidimensionality in measures of athletes’ perceptions of coaches’ need-supportive (Interpersonal Supportiveness Scale-Coach [ISS-C]) and controlling (Controlling Coach Behaviors Scale [CCBS]) interpersonal styles. The analyses indicated that the ISS-C is not multidimensional; it appears to comprise a single factor. Three of the four subscales of the CCBS appear to share a common core, whereas the fourth subscale (i.e., controlling use of rewards) seems to represent a slightly different aspect of a controlling interpersonal style. These results bring into question the multidimensionality in measures of athletes’ perceptions of coaches’ interpersonal styles. Neither measure displayed a coherent multidimensional pattern, indicating a need for better alignment between theory and measurement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2016. 105 p.
Keyword
athletes, change, leadership, motivation, multidimensionality, psychological health, self-determination theory, sports, structural equation modeling
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-126380 (URN)978-91-7601-565-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-10-28, Hörsal F, Humanisthuset, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-10-06 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2017-05-26Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
  • apa
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