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Interaction between Cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Associated with the Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease Development
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatric Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatric Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. (Aa-gruppen)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8069-8263
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 61, p. 939-945Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Several environmental factors, including infectious agents, have been suggested to cause Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been associated with AD in several recent studies.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether carriage of CMV, alone or in combination with Herpes simplex virus (HSV), increased the risk of developing AD.

METHODS: Plasma samples from 360 AD cases (75.3% women, mean age 61.2 years), taken an average of 9.6 years before AD diagnosis, and 360 age-, sex-, cohort-, and sampling date matched dementia-free controls were analyzed to detect anti-CMV (immunoglobulin [Ig] G and IgM), group-specific anti-HSV (IgG and IgM), and specific anti-HSV1 and HSV2 IgG antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. AD cases and dementia-free controls were compared using conditional logistic regression analyses.

RESULTS: The presence of anti-CMV IgG antibodies did not increase the risk of AD (odds ratio [OR], 0.857; p = 0.497). Among AD cases, an association between CMV and HSV1 carriage was detected (OR 7.145, p < 0.001); in a conditional logistic regression model, the interaction between CMV and HSV1 was associated with AD development (OR 5.662; p = 0.007).

CONCLUSION: The present findings do not support a direct relationship between CMV infection and the development of AD; however, an interaction between CMV and HSV1 was found to be associated significantly with AD development. These findings suggest that CMV infection facilitates the development of HSV1-associated AD, possibly via its effects on the immune system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. Vol. 61, p. 939-945
Keywords [en]
Alzheimer’s disease, Herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, dementia, nested case-control study
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Epidemiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143394DOI: 10.3233/JAD-161305ISI: 000422845200010PubMedID: 29254081OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-143394DiVA, id: diva2:1177996
Available from: 2018-01-26 Created: 2018-01-26 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved

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Lövheim, HugoOlsson, JanWeidung, BodilJohansson, AndersEriksson, StureHallmans, GöranElgh, Fredrik

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