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Exposure of refractory materials during high-temperature gasification of a woody biomass and peat mixture
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
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2018 (English)In: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 777-787Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Finding resilient refractory materials for slagging gasification systems have the potential to reduce costs and improve the overall plant availability by extending the service life. In this study, different refractory materials were evaluated under slagging gasification conditions. Refractory probes were continuously exposed for up to 27 h in an atmospheric, oxygen blown, entrained flow gasifier fired with a mixture of bark and peat powder. Slag infiltration depth and microstructure were studied using SEM EDS. Crystalline phases were identified with powder XRD. Increased levels of Al, originating from refractory materials, were seen in all slags. The fused cast materials were least affected, even though dissolution and slag penetration could still be observed. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were done for mixtures of refractory and slag, from which phase assemblages were predicted and viscosities for the liquid parts were estimated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018. Vol. 38, no 2, p. 777-787
Keywords [en]
Gasification, Oxygen blown, Biomass, Entrained flow, Slag, Refractory
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143620DOI: 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2017.09.016ISI: 000418211000047OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-143620DiVA, id: diva2:1178576
Available from: 2018-01-30 Created: 2018-01-30 Last updated: 2018-10-17Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Refractory corrosion in biomass gasification
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Refractory corrosion in biomass gasification
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Korrosion av eldfasta material i biomassaförgasning
Abstract [en]

To stop the net emission of CO2 to the atmosphere, we need to reduce our dependency of fossil fuels. Although a switch to a bio-based feedstock hardly can replace the total amount of fossils used today, utilization of biomass does still have a role in a future in combination with other techniques. Valuable chemicals today derived from fossils can also be produced from biomass with similar or new technology. One such technique is the entrained flow gasification where biomass is converted into synthesis gas. This gas can then be used as a building stone to produce a wide range of chemicals.

Slagging and corrosion problems are challenges presented by the ash forming elements in biomass during thermochemical energy conversion. The high temperature in the entrained flow process together with ash forming elements is creating a harsh environment for construction materials in the reactor. Severe corrosion and high wear rates of the lining material is a hurdle that has to be overcome to make the process more efficient.

The objective of this work is to investigate the nature of the destructive interaction between ash forming elements and refractory materials to provide new knowledge necessary for optimal refractory choice in entrained flow gasification of woody biomass. This has been done by studying materials exposed to slags in both controlled laboratory environments and pilot scale trials. Morphology, elemental composition and distribution of refractories and slag were investigated with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Crystalline phases were investigated with X-ray diffraction, and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were done in efforts to explain and make predictions of the interaction between slag and refractory.

Observations of slag infiltration and formation of new phases in porous materials indicate severe deterioration. The presence of Si in the materials is limiting intrusion by increasing the viscosity of infiltrated slag. This is however only a temporary delay of severe wear considering the large amount of slag that is expected to pass the refractory surface. Zircon (or zirconium) (element or mineral?) based material show promising properties when modeled with thermodynamic equilibrium, but disassembling of sintered material and dissociation of individual grains was seen after exposure to a Si- and Ca-rich slag. Fused cast materials have a minimal slag contact where the only interaction is on the immediate hot face. Dissolution was however observed when exposed to a silicate-based slag, as was the formation of NaAlO2 after contact with black liquor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2018. p. 62
Keywords
Refractory corrosion, slag, biomass, gasification
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Materials Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152664 (URN)978-91-7601-944-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-11-09, Hörsal N360, Naturvetarhuet, Johan Bures väg 16, Umeå, 13:00 (Swedish)
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Available from: 2018-10-19 Created: 2018-10-17 Last updated: 2018-10-18Bibliographically approved

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