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Yttria stabilized and surface activated platinum (PtxYOy) nanoparticles through rapid microwave assisted synthesis for oxygen reduction reaction
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Key Laboratory of Chemistry of Plant Resources in Arid Regions, State Key Laboratory Basis of Xinjiang Indigenous Medicinal Plants Resource Utilization, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, China.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
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2018 (English)In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 46, p. 141-149Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The enhancement of platinum (Pt) based catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) by addition of rare earth metals represents a promising strategy to achieve high activity yet low content of the precious metal and concurrently addresses stability issues experienced by traditional late transition metal doping. Improvement in Pt utilization is essential for vehicular applications where material cost and abundancy is a great concern. Here we report a fast and efficient production route of yttria-stabilized platinum nanoparticles (PtxYOy) using a conventional household microwave oven. ORR performance showed a significant improvement and an optimum activity at a 3:1 Pt:Y ratio outperforming that of commercial Pt-Vulcan with a doubled specific activity. Incorporation of Y is evidenced by extended X-ray absorption fine structure and energy dispersive X-ray analysis, while significant amounts of integrated Y2O3 species are detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Density functional theory calculations suggest surface migration and oxidation of Y, forming stable superficial yttrium oxide species with low negative enthalpies of formation. The robustness of PtxYOy is shown experimentally and through theoretical arguments demonstrating that surface yttria acts as a stabilizing agent and promoter of highly active ORR sites on the remaining Pt surface, surpassing even the Pt3Y alloy configuration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018. Vol. 46, p. 141-149
Keywords [en]
Yttrium, Platinum, Nanoparticles, Catalysis, Hydrogen fuel cells, Oxygen reduction
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-144503DOI: 10.1016/j.nanoen.2018.01.038ISI: 000427924000017OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-144503DiVA, id: diva2:1180206
Available from: 2018-02-05 Created: 2018-02-05 Last updated: 2019-04-29Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Innovations in nanomaterials for proton exchange membrane fuel cells
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Innovations in nanomaterials for proton exchange membrane fuel cells
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Utveckling av nanomaterial för polymerelektrolytbränsleceller
Abstract [en]

Hydrogen technologies are rapidly receiving increased attention as it offers a renewable energy alternative to the current petroleum-based fuel infrastructure, considering that continued large-scale use of such fossil fuels will lead to disastrous impacts on our environment. The proton exchange membrane fuel cell should play a significant role in a hydrogen economy since it enables convenient and direct conversion of hydrogen into electricity, thus allowing the use of hydrogen in applications particularly suited for the transportation industry. To fully realize this, multiple engineering challenges as well as development of advanced nanomaterials must however be addressed.

In this thesis, we present discoveries of new innovative nanomaterials for proton exchange membrane fuel cells by targeting the entire membrane electrode assembly. Conceptually, we first propose new fabrication techniques of gas diffusion electrodes based on helical carbon nanofibers, where an enhanced three-phase boundary was noted in particular for hierarchical structures. The cathode catalyst, responsible for facilitating the sluggish oxygen reduction reaction, was further improved by the synthesis of platinum-based nanoparticles with an incorporated secondary metal (iron, yttrium and cobalt). Here, both solvothermal and high-temperature microwave syntheses were employed. Catalytic activities were improved compared to pure platinum and could be attributed to favorably shifted oxygen adsorption energies as a result of successful incorporation of the non-precious metal. As best exemplified by platinum-iron nanoparticles, the oxygen reduction reaction was highly sensitive to both metal composition and the type of crystal structure. Finally, a proton exchange membrane based on fluorine and sulfonic acid functionalized graphene oxide was prepared and tested in hydrogen fuel cell conditions, showing improvements such as lowered hydrogen permeation and better structural stability. Consequently, we have demonstrated that there is room for improvement of multiple components, suggesting that more powerful fuel cells can likely be anticipated in the future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2019. p. 88
Keywords
Fuel Cells, Membrane Electrode Assembly, Oxygen Reduction Reaction, Platinum alloy catalyst, Nanoparticles, Gas Diffusion Electrode, Proton Exchange Membrane
National Category
Energy Systems Nano Technology Other Materials Engineering Other Chemical Engineering Condensed Matter Physics
Research subject
Materials Science; Solid State Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158501 (URN)978-91-7855-044-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-05-28, N460, Naturvetarhuset, Umeå, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-05-07 Created: 2019-04-29 Last updated: 2019-05-06Bibliographically approved

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Sandström, RobinGracia-Espino, EduardoHu, GuangzhiShchukarev, AndreyWågberg, Thomas

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