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On medical treatment for ureteral stone expulsion
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
2018 (English)In: Scandinavian journal of urology, ISSN 2168-1805, E-ISSN 2168-1813, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 94-100Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is evidence that α-adrenoceptor (α-AR) antagonists facilitate the passage of ureteric stones, but the mechanism behind this effect has not been established. If one accepts that it is the friction between a ureteral stone and the mucosa that hampers the passage of the stone, and that the passage traumatizes the mucosa, the aim of treatment must be to reduce this friction. Elevated pressure above an obstructing stone results in an increase in tension in the wall of the upper urinary tract, including the tension at stone level, which causes an increase in friction and ureteric colic. Reducing pressure, by low but adequate fluid intake, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or α-AR antagonists that reduce the friction and give pain relief, seems to be rational. When the stone is pressed downwards by a high pressure the mucosa forms a bar ahead of the stone. These factors reduce the ureteral lumen and hamper the passage of both urine and the stone. The swelling can be reduced by NSAIDs. Filling of the ureter ahead of the stone reduces the friction between the stone and the ureteral mucosa. Evacuation of the urine ahead of the stone by effective peristaltic activity increases this friction. α-AR antagonists that reduce peristalsis may therefore be used to reduce the friction and consequently allow the stones to pass more often and earlier. For very early stone expulsion, a combination of NSAIDs and α-AR antagonists may be useful. There is no evidence that spasm influences the passage of ureteral stones.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018. Vol. 52, no 2, p. 94-100
Keywords [en]
mechanism of action, medical expulsive therapy, ureteric stone, α-Adrenoceptor antagonists
National Category
Urology and Nephrology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-146090DOI: 10.1080/21681805.2018.1428682ISI: 000446242100003PubMedID: 29385947OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-146090DiVA, id: diva2:1194066
Available from: 2018-03-28 Created: 2018-03-28 Last updated: 2018-10-30Bibliographically approved

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Holmlund, Dan

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