umu.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Being in balance or stuck in time: exploring facets of time processing in relation to mental health
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Time is central in human functioning and crucial for adaptive behavior. The aim of the current thesis was to investigate aspects of people’s subjective experience of time and their relationship with mental health, specifically anxiety and subjective well-being. Two time concepts were of key interest in the thesis: time estimation, which refers to the ability to estimate time durations; and time perspective, which refers to people’s habitual way of relating to the past, the present, and the future.

 The thesis comprehends four studies. In the first three studies, time perspective and time estimation were investigated in persons with varying degrees of anxiety, ranging from mild symptoms to anxiety disorders. The results of these studies showed that in particular negative past time perspective and negative future time perspective were associated with anxiety. These time perspectives were further strongly associated with the tendency to ruminate and worry. Time estimation did not largely deviate between persons with anxiety and healthy controls, although there was some evidence that subcomponents of anxiety might be differentially related to time estimation. More specifically, state anxiety was moderately related to retrospective time estimation, such that higher levels of state anxiety was associated with judging time intervals in retrospect as longer.

 In the final study of the thesis, balanced time perspective (BTP) was examined in relation to subjective well-being and age. BTP can be described as an optimal way of relating to the past, the present and the future and has been suggested to facilitate mental health and well-being. However, there are several ways to measure BTP, and there are also indications that what constitutes a BTP is not completely age-invariant or equally associated with well-being across age. The fourth study of the thesis thus aimed at examining three methods of measuring BTP, and each methods distinct association with subjective well-being and age were examined. The study was conducted in a population-based sample of older adults (age range 60 – 90 years of old). Results of this study indicated subjective well-being is strongly related to BTP, particularly methods of measuring BTP that incorporates negative future time perspective. However, the strong (and inverse) relationship between negative future time perspective and subjective well-being diminished with increasing age. Instead, and among the oldest participants in the sample (80+ years), fatalistic views of the present had more bearing on subjective well-being.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University , 2018. , p. 56
Keywords [en]
Time perspective, Time estimation, Anxiety, Anxiety disorder, Balanced time perspective, Mental health, Subjective well-being
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Clinical Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-146267ISBN: 978-91-7601-861-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-146267DiVA, id: diva2:1194575
Public defence
2018-04-27, Norra beteendevetarhuset, HS1031, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-04-06 Created: 2018-04-03 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Insights into features of anxiety through multiple aspects of psychological time
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Insights into features of anxiety through multiple aspects of psychological time
Show others...
2014 (English)In: Journal of Integrative Psychology and Therapeutics, ISSN 2054-4723, Vol. 2, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: It is well-recognized that emotions and emotional disorders may alter the experience of time. Yet relatively little is known about different aspects of psychological time in relation to anxiety. The purpose of the present study was to explore several aspects of temporal processing, including time perspective, prospective and retrospective time estimation, in persons with anxiety symptoms.

Methods: A total of 110 individuals with varying degrees of anxiety participated in two studies. They were assigned to two groups (anxiety–control) based on their scores on anxiety measurements. Participants also completed an inventory of time perspective and several time estimation tasks which were analyzed on a group-level. Depressive symptoms were assessed and used as a covariate in the second study.

Results: Anxiety was significantly associated with Past Negative and Future Negative time perspectives as measured by the Swedish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI), even when controlling for the effect of depressive symptoms. No other significant differences were found.

Conclusion: Exploring time perspective in persons with anxious symptoms may provide important insights into features of anxiety. These findings may offer new ways of conceptualizing anxiety and provide suggestions for treatment strategies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Herbert Publications Ltd, 2014
Keywords
Anxiety, depression, mental health, temporal processing, time assessment, time estimation, time perspective
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-94814 (URN)10.7243/2054-4723-2-3 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 421-2012-650 VR
Available from: 2014-10-17 Created: 2014-10-17 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
2. Getting "stuck" in the future or the past: Relationships between dimensions of time perspective, executive functions, and repetitive negative thinking in anxiety
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Getting "stuck" in the future or the past: Relationships between dimensions of time perspective, executive functions, and repetitive negative thinking in anxiety
2018 (English)In: Psychopathology, ISSN 0254-4962, E-ISSN 1423-033X, Vol. 51, p. 362-370Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Background/Aim: Anxiety disorders are associated with impairments in several aspects of cognitive processing. In this study we investigated three such aspects, i.e., time perspective, repetitive negative thinking (worry and rumination),and executive functioning, in persons with anxiety disorders compared to healthy controls and examined the influence of negative past and negative future time perspective and executive functioning on worry and rumination.

Method: Thirty-six psychiatric outpatients with anxiety disorders (mean age = 30.83, SD = 11.74; 30 females and 6 males) and 44 healthy controls (mean age = 28.89, SD = 9.54; 24 females and 20 males) completed inventories of time perspective and repetitive negative thinking, and tasks measuring executive functioning (shifting and inhibition).

Results: The groups (patient vs. control) differed significantly on all time perspective dimensions (past, present, and future), with largest effect sizes observed for negative past and negative future. Regression analyses with executive functioning, negative past, and negative future time perspectives as predictors, and worry and rumination as outcomes, showed that negative past time perspective was the best predictor for rumination, whereas negative future time perspective more strongly predicted worry. Executive functioning was not a significant predictor of either worry or rumination.

Conclusions: Individuals with anxiety disorders demonstrated systematic biases in all time perspective dimensions, particularly negative past and negative future time perspective, which was further related to worry and rumination. Thus, interventions targeting temporal focus may be one way of reducing repetitive negative thinking. A major limitation of this study was the use of a cross-section design. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
S. Karger, 2018
Keywords
Anxiety, Anxiety disorders, Time perspective, Executive functions, Repetitive negative thinking, Worry, Rumination
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Clinical Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-146263 (URN)10.1159/000494882 (DOI)000459549500002 ()30522113 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 421-2012-650
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form

Available from: 2018-04-03 Created: 2018-04-03 Last updated: 2019-04-15Bibliographically approved
3. Time estimation in patients with anxiety disorders: Relationships with worry and state anxiety
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time estimation in patients with anxiety disorders: Relationships with worry and state anxiety
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Clinical Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-146264 (URN)
Available from: 2018-04-03 Created: 2018-04-03 Last updated: 2018-06-09
4. Time Perspective in Late Adulthood: aging patterns in past, present and future dimensions, deviations from balance, and associations with subjective well-being
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time Perspective in Late Adulthood: aging patterns in past, present and future dimensions, deviations from balance, and associations with subjective well-being
2017 (English)In: Timing & Time Perception, ISSN 2213-445X, E-ISSN 2213-4468, Vol. 5, p. 77-98Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We examined cross-sectional aging patterns for subscales of the Swedish version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory in a population-based sample of older adults (60–90 years; N = 447). Alternative methods to assess time perspective balance (DBTP, involving a single Future dimension; S-BTP; and DBTP-E, including in addition, Future Negative), were compared and their relations to subjective well-being (SWB) were examined. Significant negative age relations were observed for Past Negative and Future Negative with a clear age-related increase in Present Fatalistic, while Past Positive, Present Hedonistic, and Future Positive were relatively stable across age. A significant age-related increase in deviation from balance was observed across methods (Cohen’s ds 0.28–0.57), with the highest value for DBTP-E. Overall, S-BTP and DBTP-E were more strongly associated with SWB than DBTP (r = −0.40), with the highest value for DBTP-E (r = −0.53). Analyses of separate age groups (60–65 vs. 70–75 vs. 80–90 years) revealed a trend of weakened association with balance in old-old age, for S-BTP and DBTP-E in particular. This seemed to reflect the fact that negative views of the future are strongly related to SWB in young-old adults but diminish in importance in late senescence (80–90 years). Potential factors behind the observed patterns of results, including deficits in cognitive functioning and physical health to account for the age-related increase in present fatalism, and the potential role of a self-transcendent future time perspective for well-being in old-old age, are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Brill Academic Publishers, 2017
Keywords
Time perspective, aging, balanced time perspective, cross-sectional, subjective well-being
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-131737 (URN)10.1163/22134468-00002081 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 421-2012-650Swedish Research Council, 2015–02199
Available from: 2017-02-20 Created: 2017-02-20 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(877 kB)150 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT02.pdfFile size 877 kBChecksum SHA-512
677797af9d5c75f0eeffd5a172783de3896e40ab4f6eba2f9c42242cf7bb21fda7fc9368b1415dbbc0abeebc861743b651d78644032dc96a68338a430121e448
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf
spikblad(249 kB)13 downloads
File information
File name SPIKBLAD01.pdfFile size 249 kBChecksum SHA-512
344e2f533bd01b2b5374fd365903482d48663a94ba3831e7336fae1f8860f9e4b7f94c8df5d743e2a3963ad1d60205775c9784fee6590530b67485ab72067d89
Type spikbladMimetype application/pdf
omslag(2104 kB)0 downloads
File information
File name COVER01.pngFile size 2104 kBChecksum SHA-512
65c8f067a6ea447ba9b5223fa67f8637f70fd577a8422c04ca719d612910b025ea9b20c708f957135c0f9f9c58ac4e46a79f268aa7c0b8ef22436bafe19b4533
Type coverMimetype image/png

Authority records BETA

Åström, Elisabeth

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Åström, Elisabeth
By organisation
Department of Psychology
Psychology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 150 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 836 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf