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Composition, architecture, and functional implications of the connective tissue network of the extraocular muscles
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Ophthalmology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
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2018 (English)In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 322-329Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: We examined the pattern and extent of connective tissue distribution in the extraocular muscles (EOMs) and determined the ability of the interconnected connective tissues to disseminate force laterally.

Methods: Human EOMs were examined for collagens I, III, IV, and VI; fibronectin; laminin; and elastin using immunohistochemistry. Connective tissue distribution was examined with scanning electron microscopy. Rabbit EOMs were examined for levels of force transmission longitudinally and transversely using in vitro force assessment.

Results: Collagens I, III, and VI localized to the endomysium, perimysium, and epimysium. Collagen IV, fibronectin, and laminin localized to the basal lamina surrounding all myofibers. All collagens localized similarly in the orbital and global layers throughout the muscle length. Elastin had the most irregular pattern and ran longitudinally and circumferentially throughout the length of all EOMs. Scanning electron microscopy showed these elements to be extensively interconnected, from endomysium through the perimysium to the epimysium surrounding the whole muscle. In vitro physiology demonstrated force generation in the lateral dimension, presumably through myofascial transmission, which was always proportional to the force generated in the longitudinally oriented muscles.

Conclusions: A striking connective tissue matrix interconnects all the myofibers and extends, via perimysial connections, to the epimysium. These interconnections are significant and allow measurable force transmission laterally as well as longitudinally, suggesting that they may contribute to the nonlinear force summation seen in motor unit recording studies. This provides strong evidence that separate compartmental movements are unlikely as no region is independent of the rest of the muscle.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Rockville: The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology , 2018. Vol. 59, no 1, p. 322-329
Keywords [en]
extraocular muscles, connective tissue, collagen, muscle force, scanning electron microscopy, perimysium, epimysium
National Category
Ophthalmology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-146324DOI: 10.1167/iovs.17-23003ISI: 000425855900038PubMedID: 29346490OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-146324DiVA, id: diva2:1195332
Available from: 2018-04-05 Created: 2018-04-05 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved

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Vicente, AndréLindström, MonaPedrosa Domellöf, Fatima

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