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Tourism work among Sámi indigenous people: exploring its prevalence and role in sparsely populated areas of Sweden
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Little is known about the role of tourism development among Sámi indigenous people living in the sparsely populated areas of Sweden. Previous research shows tourism to be a potentially suitable option for development in such regions, yet the exact implications for the indigenous population remains largely unexplored. The aim of this thesis therefore is to investigate the prevalence and role of tourism involvement among Sámi indigenous people in sparsely populated areas of northern Sweden. Three different objectives underlie the aim of this work. First, to see if involvement in tourism among Sámi is common enough to have meaningful impacts on changes that bestow rural livelihoods in northern Sweden. Second, to investigate whether instead of replacing a struggling traditional occupation, tourism is part of a diversification strategy that allows for the continuation of reindeer herding. The final objective is to investigate to what extent tourism benefits go beyond just economic ones and incorporate a variety of social and cultural meanings as well. This thesis uses a livelihood approach as a theoretical lens to guide the investigative work and interpret the results. Multiple methods are used to investigate the topic, which include quantitative register data and interviews.

The results are presented in three articles. The first study shows that reindeer herding is an occupation with a strong inheritance factor. Results also indicate that individuals involved in reindeer herding are more likely to get involved in tourism than geographically matched farmers are. The second study in this thesis shows that there are many motivations behind working in tourism among Sámi entrepreneurs. Links to indigenous culture and knowledge of nature are, alongside job versatility and the joy of working with people, some of the motivations uncovered. The results also show that involvement in tourism is part of a livelihood diversification strategy, where income from tourism is used to support reindeer herding. The final study uncovers a variety of meanings given to tourism work by Sámi entrepreneurs. This includes tourism work as an opportunity to educate tourists about Sámi people and culture, as well as tourism work allowing individuals to express themselves and to keep certain traditions alive. Overall, this thesis shows that tourism involvement is prevalent among Sámi living in sparsely populated areas of Sweden, it often occurs jointly with reindeer herding, and encompasses numerous non-economic benefits. A better understanding of indigenous tourism in northern Sweden opens the door for better policies. The findings presented here need to be taken into consideration in any future analysis of tourism development in northern Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, Department of Geography and Economic History , 2018. , p. 82
Series
GERUM, ISSN 1402-5205 ; 2018:2
Keywords [en]
Indigenous tourism, Sámi, reindeer herders, sustainable livelihoods, diversification, rural development, sparsely populated areas, Sweden
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-146942ISBN: 978-91-7601-883-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-146942DiVA, id: diva2:1200351
Public defence
2018-05-18, S213H, Samhällsvetarhuset, Umeå, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-04-27 Created: 2018-04-24 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Maintaining inherited occupations in changing times: the role of tourism among reindeer herders in northern Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Maintaining inherited occupations in changing times: the role of tourism among reindeer herders in northern Sweden
2016 (English)In: Polar Geography, ISSN 1088-937X, E-ISSN 1939-0513, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 40-57Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Tourism is often identified as able to provide opportunities for indigenous populations. In northern Sweden, correspondingly tourism has been proposed to create employment opportunities and help preserve Sámi indigenous culture. Although there are numerous studies on the topic, they are lacking in a time dimension and comprehensiveness. Often they are based on limited case studies and narratives of those members of the indigenous population who have engaged in new activities successfully. Therefore, this work aims to investigate on a national scale how widespread are tourism occupations among reindeer herders and what are some of the characteristics of those engaged in them. This paper uses detailed census and population register data containing personal and professional information on reindeer herders in Sweden and their families spanning 50 years. The findings suggest that involvement in tourism is more common among reindeer herders than farmers. Moreover, involvement in tourism is highly gendered with women being more likely to be engaged in it. Findings also show that the type of tourism professions people are engaged in is more a result of the available geographical resource than an inherent inclination among reindeer herders to work with specific fields such as nature-based attractions.

Keywords
Reindeer herders, Sámi tourism, indigenous, inherited occupations, rural development, Sweden
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-118005 (URN)10.1080/1088937X.2016.1148794 (DOI)000386442200003 ()
Funder
Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation
Available from: 2016-03-09 Created: 2016-03-09 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
2. Tourism as a livelihood diversification strategy among Sámi indigenous people in northern Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tourism as a livelihood diversification strategy among Sámi indigenous people in northern Sweden
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keywords
Sustainable livelihoods, indigenous tourism, reindeer herders, diversification, Sámi, Sweden
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-146940 (URN)
Available from: 2018-04-24 Created: 2018-04-24 Last updated: 2018-06-09
3. More than just a job: exploring the meanings of tourism work among indigenous Sámi tourist entrepreneurs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>More than just a job: exploring the meanings of tourism work among indigenous Sámi tourist entrepreneurs
2018 (English)In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

In northern Sweden, the positive effects of tourism involvement by Sámi Indigenous people are mostly shown in terms of employment, yet at times have been shown to go beyond economic ones and include other equally important benefits. Only when all components are seen at the same time can we get a true understanding of tourism as a livelihood strategy. This paper uses a sustainable rural livelihoods approach to investigate the different roles and meanings of tourism among Sámi tourist entrepreneurs in northern Sweden. It does so using data from 13 semi-structured interviews with Sámi Indigenous tourist entrepreneurs. The results indicate that there are many goals and objectives tourism jobs serve among Sámi Indigenous people in the Swedish north. For example, the tourism business is at times seen as a more sustainable way of using reindeer. Tourism was also a way for Sámi to express themselves and keep certain traditions alive. Another leading conclusion relates to tourist entrepreneurs as cultural ambassadors for Sámi issues. By presenting factual information about Sámi people, challenging stereotypes and by making others aware of the many hardships reindeer herders face, Sámi tourist entrepreneurs attribute to their work meanings that are social, cultural and even political.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018
Keywords
sustainable livelihoods, sustainable tourism, indigenous, reindeer herders, Sámi, Sweden
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-146937 (URN)10.1080/09669582.2018.1466894 (DOI)
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form

Available from: 2018-04-24 Created: 2018-04-24 Last updated: 2018-08-20Bibliographically approved

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