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Comparative Effectiveness of Rituximab and Other Initial Treatment Choices for Multiple Sclerosis
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
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2018 (English)In: JAMA Neurology, ISSN 2168-6149, E-ISSN 2168-6157, Vol. 75, no 3, p. 320-327Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

IMPORTANCE Comparative real-world effectiveness studies of initial disease-modifying treatment (DMT) choices for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) that include rituximab are lacking.

OBJECTIVE To assess the effectiveness and drug discontinuation rates of rituximab among patients with newly diagnosed RRMS compared with injectable DMTs, dimethyl fumarate, fingolimod, or natalizumab.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS This retrospective cohort study used prospectively collected data to examine specialized care of 2 Swedish county-based community samples of patients with RRMS. Patients with RRMS who received diagnoses from January 1, 2012, to October 31, 2015, who resided in Stockholm or Vasterbotten Counties were identified from a Swedish multiple sclerosis registry.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES All reasons for drug discontinuation of initial treatment choice (main outcome) and specific reasons for switching (secondary outcomes) were analyzed with multivariable Cox regression, including propensity scores.

RESULTS Among 494 patients (median [interquartile range] age, 34.4 [27.4-43.4] years; 158 men [32.0%]), 215 received an injectable DMT (43.5%); 86 (17.4%), dimethyl fumarate; 17 (3.4%), fingolimod; 50 (10.1%), natalizumab; 120 (24.3%), rituximab; and 6 (1.2%), other DMT. Regional preferences were pronounced, with 42 of 52 (81%) and 78 of 442 (18%) receiving rituximab in Vasterbotten and Stockholm, respectively. The annual discontinuation rate for rituximab, injectable DMTs, dimethyl fumarate, fingolimod, and natalizumab were 0.03, 0.53, 0.32, 0.38, and 0.29, respectively. Continued disease activity was the main reason for discontinuation of injectable DMTs, dimethyl fumarate, and fingolimod; positive John Cunningham virus serology results were the main reason for discontinuation of natalizumab. Rate of clinical relapses and/or neuroradiologic disease activity were significantly lower for rituximab compared with injectable DMTs and dimethyl fumarate, with a tendency for lower relapse rates also compared with natalizumab and fingolimod. The annual discontinuation rate of initial treatment choice was significantly lower in Vasterbotten compared with Stockholm (0.09 and 0.37, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Rituximab was superior to all other DMT in terms of drug discontinuation and displayed better clinical efficacy compared with injectable DMTs and dimethyl fumarate with borderline significance compared with natalizumab and fingolimod. The county where rituximab constituted the main initial treatment choice displayed better outcomes in most measured variables. Collectively, our findings suggest that rituximab performs better than other commonly used DMTs in patients with newly diagnosed RRMS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Medical Association , 2018. Vol. 75, no 3, p. 320-327
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-146450DOI: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2017.4011ISI: 000427265700010PubMedID: 29309484OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-146450DiVA, id: diva2:1203599
Available from: 2018-05-03 Created: 2018-05-03 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved

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Boremalm, MalinSalzer, Jonatan

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