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Caloric Restriction and Its Effect on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate Variability and Arterial Stiffness and Dilatation: A Review of the Evidence
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1422-0067, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 19, no 3, article id 751Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Essential hypertension, fast heart rate, low heart rate variability, sympathetic nervous system dominance over parasympathetic, arterial stiffness, endothelial dysfunction and poor flow-mediated arterial dilatation are all associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. This review of randomised controlled trials and other studies demonstrates that caloric restriction (CR) is capable of significantly improving all these parameters, normalising blood pressure (BP) and allowing patients to discontinue antihypertensive medication, while never becoming hypotensive. CR appears to be effective regardless of age, gender, ethnicity, weight, body mass index (BMI) or a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes, but the greatest benefit is usually observed in the sickest subjects and BP may continue to improve during the refeeding period. Exercise enhances the effects of CR only in hypertensive subjects. There is as yet no consensus on the mechanism of effect of CR and it may be multifactorial. Several studies have suggested that improvement in BP is related to improvement in insulin sensitivity, as well as increased nitric oxide production through improved endothelial function. In addition, CR is known to induce SIRT1, a nutrient sensor, which is linked to a number of beneficial effects in the body.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2018. Vol. 19, no 3, article id 751
Keywords [en]
blood pressure, heart rate variability, arterial stiffness, flow-mediated dilatation, caloric restriction fasting
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-151188DOI: 10.3390/ijms19030751ISI: 000428309800108PubMedID: 29518898Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85043595673OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-151188DiVA, id: diva2:1245174
Available from: 2018-09-04 Created: 2018-09-04 Last updated: 2019-05-21Bibliographically approved

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Nicoll, RachelHenein, Michael Y.

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