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Effect of full-scale ozonation and pilot-scale granular activated carbon on the removal of biocides, antimycotics and antibiotics in a sewage treatment plant
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
2019 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 649, p. 1117-1123Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several micropollutants show low removal efficiencies in conventional sewage treatment plants, and therefore enter the aquatic environment. To reduce the levels of micropollutants in sewage effluent, and thereby the effects on biota, a number of extra treatment steps are currently being evaluated. Two such techniques are ozonation and adsorption onto activated carbon. In this study, we investigated the efficiency of Sweden's first full-scale ozonation treatment plant at removing a number of antibiotics, antimycotics and biocides. The effect of adding granular activated carbon (GAC) on a pilot scale and pilot-scale ozonation were also evaluated. The conventional treatment (13,000 PE) with the add-on of full-scale ozonation (0.55 g O3/g Total organic carbon (TOC)) was able to remove most of the studied compounds (>90%), except for benzotriazoles and fluconazole (<50%). Adsorption on GAC on a pilot scale showed a higher removal efficiency than ozonation (>80% for all studied compounds). Three types of GAC were evaluated and shown to have different removal efficiencies. In particular, the GAC with the smallest particle sizes exhibited the highest removal efficiency. The results demonstrate that it is important to select an appropriate type of carbon to achieve the removal goal for specific target compounds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019. Vol. 649, p. 1117-1123
Keywords [en]
Biocides, Antibiotics, Ozonation, GAC, Removal efficiency, Wastewater
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-151966DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.08.382ISI: 000446076500106Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85052640940OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-151966DiVA, id: diva2:1249734
Funder
Swedish Research Council FormasMistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental ResearchSwedish Agency for Marine and Water ManagementAvailable from: 2018-09-20 Created: 2018-09-20 Last updated: 2018-10-31Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Antimicrobials in sewage treatment plants: occurrence, fate and resistance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antimicrobials in sewage treatment plants: occurrence, fate and resistance
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Antimikrobiella ämnen i avloppsreningsverk : förekomst, avskiljning och resistens
Abstract [en]

The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified antibiotic resistance as a major threat to human health. The environment has been suggested to play an important role in the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. The external environment can act as a source of resistance genes that could potentially be transferred into human pathogens. It is also an important route for the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and bacteria. Sewage treatment plants (STPs) are among the most important routes by which antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes enter the environment. It has been suggested that STPs are hotspots for the development of antibiotic resistance because they contain relatively high concentrations of antibiotics as well as both human and environmental bacteria. Further complicating matters, there is evidence that other substances with antimicrobial properties, such as biocides and metals, can cause antibiotic resistance due to co- and cross-resistance.

This thesis contributes new knowledge on the concentrations, mass flows, and removal efficiencies of antimicrobials in STPs and their connections to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Paper I presents data on the levels of 40 different antimicrobials in the incoming wastewater, treated effluent, and digested sludge of eleven different STPs. Although not previously detected in STPs, chlorhexidine is shown to be ubiquitous in such plants. In Paper II, mass flows and removal efficiencies are calculated for eleven antimicrobials over various treatment steps in three STPs, showing that polar antimicrobials were inefficiently removed from the wastewater. In Paper III, the minimum selective concentration (MSC) for the antibiotic tetracycline was determined in a complex bacterial aquatic biofilm using both phenotypic and genotypic endpoints. It was found that 10 µg/L selected for phenotypic resistance, and 1 µg/L selected for certain resistance genes. Paper VI used metagenomics to determine whether there is selection for antibiotic-resistant bacteria in STPs and whether the extent of this selection can be correlated to the concentrations of antimicrobial compounds. No clear evidence for selection was identified. Paper V evaluates advanced wastewater treatment techniques for removing antimicrobial compounds using ozonation and granular activated carbon (GAC). The identity of the GAC material was found to strongly affect removal efficiency, and GAC was more efficient than ozonation for most compounds at the tested concentrations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2018. p. 77
Keywords
biocides, antibiotics, sewage treatment plants, wastewater, sludge, ozonation, activated carbon, antibiotic resistance, antimicrobials, mass flows, LC-MS/MS, environment, advanced water treatment
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152554 (URN)978-91-7601-938-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-11-07, Aula Anatomica (Bio.A.206), Biologihuset, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-10-17 Created: 2018-10-11 Last updated: 2018-10-15Bibliographically approved

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Östman, MarcusFick, JerkerTysklind, Mats

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