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Social Determinants of Overweight and Obesity in Women in Zimbabwe: A Cross-Sectional Study
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
2018 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Background: Overweight and obesity is a well-recognized risk factor for various non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Evidence has shown that the burden of overweight and obesity is increasing in low and middle-income countries, especially in women. Despite this disturbing trend, little is known about the possible risk factors in the Zimbabwe setting which may explain why few efforts have been made to address overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the socioeconomic risk factors for overweight and obesity in non-pregnant adult Zimbabwean women aged 15-49.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the 2015 Zimbabwe Demographic Health Survey (n = 8552), which yielded representative information on the adult female population in Zimbabwe aged 15 to 49. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by dividing the body weight by height squared using measures collected by trained personnel. The socio-economic variables studied were age, marital status, residence, province, religion, education, household wealth index, household size, access to mass media, having health insurance or not and the use of contraception. Prevalence of overweight (BMI≥25–29,9 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) was determined. Simple and multivariable logistic regressions were then used to ascertain the relationships between overweight and obesity and the socio-economic variables.

Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in adult females was 36.2% and 12.8% respectively. The odds for being overweight were significantly higher with increasing age (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) for women aged 30–44 (AOR=2.7), >45 years (AOR=3.8) when compared with the 15-29-year-old women; with marriage (AOR=1.59) when compared with the unmarried; and with all wealth classes AOR= 1.3, 1.7, 2.6, 3.5 for poorer, middle, richer and richest wealth groups respectively, when compared with the poorest wealth group. Having health insurance had significant higher odds for being overweight (AOR=1.3) as compared to women who had none; while using hormonal contraception increased the odds by 1.1 (AOR) when compared with those using no contraception. Same determinants were relevant for obesity. The odds for being obese were significantly higher with increasing age; for women aged 30-44 (AOR=3.1), >45 years (AOR=5.6) when compared with the 15-29-year-old women; with marriage (AOR=1.5) when compared with the unmarried; with all wealth classes AOR= 1.8, 2.3, 3.9, 5.8 for poorer, middle, richer and richest wealth groups respectively, when compared with the poorest wealth group. Having health insurance had higher odds for being obese (AOR=1.4) as compared to women who had none; while using hormonal contraception increased the odds by 1.3 (AOR) when compared with those using no contraception.

Conclusions: The key determinants for overweight and obesity were older age, being married, being wealthy, having health insurance and the use of hormonal contraception. The design of multi-faceted overweight and obesity reduction programs for women that focus on health education, increasing physical activity and strengthening of social support systems that can counteract the socio-cultural barriers that promote overweight and obesity are necessary to combat this epidemic.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. , p. 45
Series
Centre for Public Health Report Series, ISSN 1651-341X ; 2018:6
Keywords [en]
Overweight, obesity, women, Zimbabwe, social determinants
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152630OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-152630DiVA, id: diva2:1256357
External cooperation
Zimbabwe Demographic Health Survey - Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency (ZIMSTAT)
Educational program
Master's Programme in Public Health
Presentation
2018-05-23, Caring Science building, Room B301, Umeå University, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2018-10-22 Created: 2018-10-16 Last updated: 2018-10-22Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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