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Sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans to Baltic Sea herring
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. (EcoChange)
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2019 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 218, p. 493-500Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in herring (Clupea harengus) remain high in several parts of the Baltic Sea, despite declines in PCDD/F emissions since the 1980s. The reasons behind this are not well understood. This study applied a statistical modeling approach where sources of PCDD/Fs that contaminate Baltic biota were quantitatively assessed by analyzing existing datasets. PCDD/F patterns were extracted from a herring dataset using positive matrix factorization (PMF). The extracted biota patterns were transformed into sediment patterns using fish-to-sediment transformation factors, and the resulting patterns were compared with known source PCDD/F patterns. The model distinguished three model patterns, which explained 85% of the data. These patterns were matched to tetra-chlorophenol (TCP), penta-chlorophenol/atmospheric background (PCP/AB), and thermal source patterns, respectively. The thermal source was the largest contributor to toxic equivalents (TEQ) in herring, but the level decreased from 42 ± 9.0 pg TEQ g−1 lipid weight (lw) before year 2000 (pre-2000) to 15 ± 2.4 pg TEQ g−1 lw post-2000, i.e., a decline of around one-third in the original TEQ concentration. The contribution of TCP more than doubled, from 2.1 ± 0.62 pg TEQ g−1 lw to 5.6 ± 1.1 pg TEQ g−1 lw, and the relative contribution of PCP/AB also increased. These increasing trends suggest that, as primary air emissions of PCDD/Fs are managed and levels decline, the impact of TCP and PCP/AB sources on Baltic Sea biota will become more important over time and that PCDD/F-contaminated sites in coastal areas and marine environments require more attention.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019. Vol. 218, p. 493-500
Keywords [en]
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, PCDD/Fs, Source tracing, Baltic Sea, Herring, Positive matrix factorization, Transformation factors, Receptor modeling
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URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153732DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.11.051ISI: 000456640900055Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85057102499OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-153732DiVA, id: diva2:1266256
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Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 09/181Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 2219-17-002Swedish Research Council FormasAvailable from: 2018-11-27 Created: 2018-11-27 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved

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Assefa, AntenehTysklind, Mats

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