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Hyperspectral Imaging for Characterization of Lithic Raw Materials: the Case of aMesolithic Dwelling in Northern Sweden
Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0880-644X
SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
Department of Archaeology, Conservation and History, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7471-8195
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2019 (English)In: Lithic Technology, ISSN 2051-6185, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 22-35Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study proposes a method for the classification of lithic raw materials by means of hyperspectralimaging, a non-destructive fast analytical technique. The information potential of this approach wastested on a dwelling site dated to mid-late Mesolithic (7200–5800 BP) at Lillsjön, Ångermanland,Sweden. A dataset of lithic tools and flakes (2612 objects) made of quartz and quartzite, wasanalyzed using a shortwave infrared hyperspectral imaging system. The classification of the rawmaterials was performed applying multivariate statistical models. A random test set of 55artefacts was selected, classified according to spectral signature and divided into categoriescorresponding to different geological materials. The same test set was analyzed with EnergyDispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED XRF) to validate the classification. The entire dataset of lithicscollected on the site was then classified applying a SIMCA model. The distribution of items onthe site was visualized in a 3D GIS platform according to their geological characteristics tohighlight patterns that could indicate different use of the space and dynamics of raw materialssupply over time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2019. Vol. 44, no 1, p. 22-35
Keywords [en]
Lithic raw materials, hyperspectral imaging, EDXRF, chemometrics, intra-site analysis, Swedish Mesolithic semi-subterranean dwellings
National Category
Archaeology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154130DOI: 10.1080/01977261.2018.1543105OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-154130DiVA, id: diva2:1270072
Projects
Mobima; Bio4Energy
Funder
Marcus and Amalia Wallenberg Foundation, MAW 2012.0136Available from: 2018-12-12 Created: 2018-12-12 Last updated: 2019-09-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Carved Mountains and Moving Stones: applications of Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Mineral Characterisation in Provenance Studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carved Mountains and Moving Stones: applications of Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Mineral Characterisation in Provenance Studies
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The study of stone artefacts is a combination of anthropological archaeology and geology, rooted in analytical techniques for determining the materials’ composition, typological stylistic classification and interpretation of cultural patterns. In this thesis, the archaeology of materials is considered in the context of sites- and landscape transformation, economic history and development of techniques. Focus has been on applications of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) for characterising minerals in different case studies. Interdisciplinary protocols are implemented in order to account for the various aspects of stone artefacts, merging geochemical investigation and digital documentation.

This thesis consists of two parts: an introductory text and five research publications. In the first paper, a NIR portable probe is tested to measure iron oxide-based pigments in rock paintings in Flatruet (Sweden). The study demonstrates that the probe is useful for characterising different sections of paint in-situ and pinpointing similarities and dissimilarities in the pigments used for the figures. The second and third papers are aimed at studying the use of raw materials for tool production in a Mesolithic settlement in Northern Sweden. In the second paper is shown that hyperspectral imaging helps characterise the mineral composition of a selected group of tools and the spectral signature of quartz, quartzite, and flint are examined. In the third paper, hyperspectral imaging-based classification is applied to the entire dataset of lithic tools and flakes collected during excavation of the site. The objects are divided into categories of raw materials according to their spectral features and the distribution is visualised on a 3D GIS platform. The fourth paper deals with the application of hyperspectral imaging, a field probe (MicroNIR) and portable Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF), for in-situ characterisation of building materials on the inner wall of the fortified citadel of Carcassonne (France). The research shows how the combination of these analytical methods in conjunction with a stratigraphic study of the architecture helps to understand the use and re-use of materials in different construction phases. The last paper shows how an in-field NIR-probe may be used in landscape surveys for instant characterisations of different stone types. This study was carried out in the district of Montescaglioso, Southern Italy, to highlight patterns of use and distribution of artefacts made of local calcarenite (limestone) in the period between the 6th and 3rd century BC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2018. p. 91
Series
Archaeology and environment, ISSN 0281-5877 ; 31
Keywords
Raw materials, mineral characterization, material agency, Near Infrared spectroscopy, hyperspectral imaging, Energy-Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence, multivariate statistics
National Category
Archaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154159 (URN)978-91-7601-993-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-01-25, S104, Samhällsvetarhuset, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Marcus and Amalia Wallenberg Foundation, MAW 2012.0136
Available from: 2018-12-14 Created: 2018-12-12 Last updated: 2018-12-13Bibliographically approved

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Sciuto, ClaudiaLinderholm, Johan

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