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Characterization of building materials by means of spectral remote sensing: the example of Carcassonne's defensive wall (Aude, France)
Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0880-644X
LAHM University of Rennes 2, France.
ITAP, Irstea, Montepllier Sup Agro, Université de Montpellier, IRSTEA, France.
W3DS, Rennes, France.
Show others and affiliations
2019 (English)In: Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, ISSN 2352-409X, E-ISSN 2352-4103, p. 396-405Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Geological and archaeological analysis of stone masonries in standing structures helps reveal information aboutuse of natural resources. At the same time, the study of historical materials is useful for conservators and culturalheritage management. Geochemical and petrographic analysis of building material types is usually done throughdestructive analysis on a few selected samples and can be problematic due to the costs of operations and the sizeof buildings themselves. This paper demonstrates that the combination of hyperspectral imaging portable NearInfrared (NIR) spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectroscopy can be useful foranalysing types of raw materials used in distinct construction phases of the inner defensive wall in the citadel ofCarcassonne (Aude, France). Stratigraphic analysis of the architecture, short-range spectral remote sensing andportable ED-XRF measurements were combined in an interdisciplinary approach to classify sandstone elements.The experimental protocol for in situ non-destructive analysis and classification of the masonry types allows theinvestigation of the monument in a diachronic perspective, collecting information to delineate raw materialsvarieties and their use or re-use through time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019. p. 396-405
Keywords [en]
Hyperspectral imaging, Portable NIR, ED-XRF, Multivariate statistics, Provenance of building materials, Buildings archaeology, Historical monuments
National Category
Archaeology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154131DOI: 10.1016/j.jasrep.2018.10.030ISI: 000462119900034OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-154131DiVA, id: diva2:1270084
Projects
Mobima; Bio4Energy
Funder
Marcus and Amalia Wallenberg Foundation, MAW 2012.0136Available from: 2018-12-12 Created: 2018-12-12 Last updated: 2019-09-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Carved Mountains and Moving Stones: applications of Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Mineral Characterisation in Provenance Studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carved Mountains and Moving Stones: applications of Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Mineral Characterisation in Provenance Studies
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The study of stone artefacts is a combination of anthropological archaeology and geology, rooted in analytical techniques for determining the materials’ composition, typological stylistic classification and interpretation of cultural patterns. In this thesis, the archaeology of materials is considered in the context of sites- and landscape transformation, economic history and development of techniques. Focus has been on applications of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) for characterising minerals in different case studies. Interdisciplinary protocols are implemented in order to account for the various aspects of stone artefacts, merging geochemical investigation and digital documentation.

This thesis consists of two parts: an introductory text and five research publications. In the first paper, a NIR portable probe is tested to measure iron oxide-based pigments in rock paintings in Flatruet (Sweden). The study demonstrates that the probe is useful for characterising different sections of paint in-situ and pinpointing similarities and dissimilarities in the pigments used for the figures. The second and third papers are aimed at studying the use of raw materials for tool production in a Mesolithic settlement in Northern Sweden. In the second paper is shown that hyperspectral imaging helps characterise the mineral composition of a selected group of tools and the spectral signature of quartz, quartzite, and flint are examined. In the third paper, hyperspectral imaging-based classification is applied to the entire dataset of lithic tools and flakes collected during excavation of the site. The objects are divided into categories of raw materials according to their spectral features and the distribution is visualised on a 3D GIS platform. The fourth paper deals with the application of hyperspectral imaging, a field probe (MicroNIR) and portable Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF), for in-situ characterisation of building materials on the inner wall of the fortified citadel of Carcassonne (France). The research shows how the combination of these analytical methods in conjunction with a stratigraphic study of the architecture helps to understand the use and re-use of materials in different construction phases. The last paper shows how an in-field NIR-probe may be used in landscape surveys for instant characterisations of different stone types. This study was carried out in the district of Montescaglioso, Southern Italy, to highlight patterns of use and distribution of artefacts made of local calcarenite (limestone) in the period between the 6th and 3rd century BC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2018. p. 91
Series
Archaeology and environment, ISSN 0281-5877 ; 31
Keywords
Raw materials, mineral characterization, material agency, Near Infrared spectroscopy, hyperspectral imaging, Energy-Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence, multivariate statistics
National Category
Archaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154159 (URN)978-91-7601-993-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-01-25, S104, Samhällsvetarhuset, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Marcus and Amalia Wallenberg Foundation, MAW 2012.0136
Available from: 2018-12-14 Created: 2018-12-12 Last updated: 2018-12-13Bibliographically approved

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Sciuto, ClaudiaLinderholm, Johan

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