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Lightweighting and electrification strategies for improving environmental performante of passenger cars in India by 2030: A critical perspective based on life cycle assessment
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
2019 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 209, p. 1604-1613Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Indian automotive industry is faced with an unenviable challenge of achieving a sustainable growth in one of the largest markets. Adapting to increasingly strict environmental norms by the government committed to reducing the national greenhouse gas emissions, growing concerns amongst the citizens over the deteriorating air quality in the cities are the major environmental sustainability challenges for the auto industry in next decade. In this study, we analyze the potential benefits of vehicle light weighting and introduction of electric vehicles through a cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment (LCA) of a standard sedan passenger vehicle. Based on the LCA results, five different scenarios are envisioned with different composition of the passenger vehicle fleet in 2030. These scenarios are used to analyze three key enviro-economical goals for India; (1) dependency on crude oil imports, (2) GHG emission reduction targets and (3) improvement in urban air quality. The results indicate that global warming potential (GWP) and fossil depletion impacts of ICEs can be reduced by 17%, while metal depletion reduces by 34% per vehicle with lightweighting. However, increase in freshwater ecotoxicity impact by 57% is one of the trade-offs. The GWP of a compact BEV powered with current (2014) and 2030 electricity grid mixes is 36% and 16% higher than petrol car. The GWP of a sub-compact BEV powered with current grid mix is 9% higher with current grid mix but 14% lower than petrol cars when powered with 2030 electricity grid mix. Crude oil consumption and GHG emissions are reduced by 20% with lightweight ICE fleet. Whereas, up to 45% reduction in crude oil consumption and 65% improvement in urban air quality can be achieved with BEV penetration scenarios. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019. Vol. 209, p. 1604-1613
Keywords [en]
LCA and environmental performance, 2030 passenger vehicle fleet, Reduction of crude oil imports, Urban air quality improvement, Lightweighted ICEs, Compact and sub compact BEV
National Category
Energy Systems Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-156587DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.11.153ISI: 000457351900131OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-156587DiVA, id: diva2:1291078
Available from: 2019-02-22 Created: 2019-02-22 Last updated: 2019-02-22Bibliographically approved

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Upadhyayula, Venkata K.K.Shanmugam, Kavitha

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