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Absence of high-risk human papilloma virus in p16 positive inverted sinonasal papilloma
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3522-1842
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6949-1213
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
Department of Surgical Sciences, Division of Otorhinolaryngology, Uppsala University.
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Sinonasal inverted papilloma (SIP) is a relatively rare disease, and its etiology is not understood. It is characterized by locally aggressive growth and a strong tendency to recur despite its benign histology.

Aims: The aim of this study was to identify the presence of human papilloma virus (HPV) and its surrogate marker p16 in SIP tissue samples from a regional cohort.

Material and Methods: Subjects were identified from our regional center cohort of 88 SIP patients treated between 1984-2014. From these subjects, 54 were included in this study.  Of these, 53 biopsies were analyzed with PCR, and 54 samples were immunohistochemically stained for p16. DNA was extracted from histopathologically verified SIP.  Genotype screening for 13 high risk-, 5 oncogenic and 6 low risk HPV types was performed using the PapilloCheck® HPV-screening test.

Results: HPV analysis was successful for 38 of 53 samples. Of the 38 successfully analyzed samples, only 2 samples were positive for HPV 11.  Notably, p16 was present in the epithelia in all samples, and in the papilloma lesions in 37 samples.

Conclusion: Since only 2 out of 38 SIPs were positive for HPV (type 11), and at the same time p16 was positive in epithelia in all samples and in 37 of 38 papilloma lesions of the samples, it is concluded that p16 cannot be used as a surrogate marker for high-risk HPV-infection in SIP. We are currently planning a prospective, multicenter study in order to increase the study power and in order to be able to better evaluate the clinical implications of HPV-and p16 in SIP.

Keywords [en]
human papillomavirus, inverted nasal papilloma, PapilloCheck, immunohistochemistry
National Category
Otorhinolaryngology
Research subject
Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158487OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-158487DiVA, id: diva2:1307665
Available from: 2019-04-29 Created: 2019-04-29 Last updated: 2019-04-29
In thesis
1. Human papillomavirus in sinonasal inverted papilloma, recurrent respiratory papilloma and non-malignant tonsils
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human papillomavirus in sinonasal inverted papilloma, recurrent respiratory papilloma and non-malignant tonsils
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Humant papillomvirus i respiratoriska papillom, inverterade näspapillom och vid godartad sjukdom i halsmandlarna
Abstract [en]

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is known to cause recurrent respiratory papilloma (RRP) and certain types of oropharyngeal cancer. HPV has also been associated with sinonasal inverted papilloma (SIP). HPV transmission routes are under investigation and the conviction is that the infection occurs sexually at an adult stage, however, vertical transmission at birth with a dormant viral condition until disease eruption/co-activation has been stated as a possibility.

Purpose: The purpose of this work was to contribute to the understanding of HPV related chronic diseases in the airway. Specific aims were: 1. To increase understanding regarding changes in the immune system as well as of the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan in patients with RRP. 2. To evaluate prevalence of HPV and its surrogate marker p16 in SIP as well as HPV, p16 and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in benign tonsillar disease. HPV and EBV in non-malignant tonsillar disease were studied due to the fact that incidence of HPV positive tonsillar cancer is increasing and the time of viral infection is unknown.

Methods: A phenotypic characterization of peripheral blood from 16 RRP patients and 12 age-matched controls, using immunoflow cytometry, and monoclonal antibodies against differentiation and activation markers, was performed. The cytokine mRNA profile of monocytes, T helper-, T cytotoxic-, and NK cells was assessed using RT-qPCR. 54 SIP samples were studied of which 53 were available for analyzation with PCR. Genotype screening for 18 high risk and six low risk HPV types was performed using the PapilloCheck® HPV-screening test (a PCR method). 54 samples were immunohistochemically (IHC) stained for p16. Biopsies from vocal folds (VFs) and false vocal folds (FVFs) were collected from 24 patients with RRP, 12 were randomly selected to histochemistry for Hyaluronan (HA) and IHC staining for CD44 in the epithelium, stroma and RRP lesions. The remaining 12 patients were analyzed for HA molecular mass distribution with a gas-phase electrophoretic molecular mobility analyzer (GEMMA). Eight VF samples and four FVF samples were successfully analyzed. Biopsies from 40 non-malignant tonsils were analyzed using Papillocheck® for HPV, IHC for p16 and EBER analysis for EBV.

Results: We found a dominance of cytotoxic T cells, activated NK cells, and high numbers of stressed MIC A/B (MHC class I chain-related molecule A/B) expressing lymphocytes. The HPV analysis was successful for 38 SIP samples and two (5%) were positive for HPV 11. Notably, p16 was present in the epithelia of all samples and in the papilloma portions in 37 of 38 samples. We found extensive HA staining in the stroma of both VFs and FVFs. CD44 was expressed throughout the epithelium, stroma, and RRP lesions in both FVFs and VFs, it did however, not concur with the expression of HA. Very high mass HA was found in both VFs and FVFs, though more variation regarding amounts of HA was seen in the VFs compared to FVFs. No HPV was found in non-malignant tonsils, the p16 levels were low and the counted EBER positive cells showed great variation in numbers.

Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate an immune dysregulation with inverted CD4+/CD8+ ratio and aberrant cytokine mRNA production in RRP patients, compared to healthy controls. We concluded that p16 cannot be used as a surrogate marker for high-risk HPV-infection in SIP and that HPV incidence was low (5%). CD44 does not seem to bind to HA, which might explain the noninflammatory response previously described in RRP. Very high mass HA possibly crosslinked was seen in both VFs and FVFs. A possibility to counteract inflammatory crosslinking of HA may be found for medical treatment options in RRP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2019. p. 56
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1955
Keywords
Human papillomavirus, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, sinonasal inverted papilloma, non-malignant tonsillar disease, Epstein-Barr virus, immune system, p16, Hyaluronan
National Category
Otorhinolaryngology
Research subject
Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158489 (URN)978-91-7601-865-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-05-24, Sal D, Unod T9, Norrlands Universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
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Titel enligt titelblad: Human papillomavirus in recurrent respiratory papilloma, sinonasal inverted papilloma, and non-malignant tonsils

Available from: 2019-05-03 Created: 2019-04-29 Last updated: 2019-05-08Bibliographically approved

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Holm, AnnaAllard, AnnikaEriksson, IreneLaurell, GöranNylander, KarinOlofsson, Katarina

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