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Ethnic Minority Media in Russia, the UK, Germany, Spain, Estonia and the Nordic Countries
Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1776-3712
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2016 (English)In: ECREA 2016 Abstract Book: Mediated (Dis)Continuities: Contesting Pasts, Presents and Futures, Prague: CZECH-IN, s. r. o. , 2016, p. 114-114, article id PP 311Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Our aim is to examine how ethnic minority media emerged and became a factor in the development of media landscapes. What media is minority media? How important are societal contexts in different countries or regions? What key factors, forces and processes shape the minority media landscape? What differences and similarities can be identified, and explained? We discuss media produced by or for ethnic minorities, beginning with the foundation of minority language periodicals, and moving on to radio and television programming. We also discuss representation of ethnic minorities in mainstream media, and ethnic diversity - or lack thereof - in media companies. Finally, the emergence of broadcast media led to demands for minority programming, which has gradually expanded in the wake of migration and recognition of national minorities. Minority media, public or private, is vulnerable in times of economic crisis. Digitalization has opened new possibilities. But, the Internet is dominated by majority languages (Cunliff 2007).   In the late 19th century Europe technological innovations and favorable conditions created flourishing press markets. Ethnic or nationalistic activists followed suit, founding the first periodicals. However, multiple changes in borders, state formations and central concepts make it difficult to determine which ethnic groups can be seen as minorities. There are no universal definitions of ‘minority’, ‘indigenous people’ or ’migrants’. The concept of ‘minority’ arose in the aftermath of WWI and signing of first minority treaties (Jackson 1998). But, how do we conceptualize ethnic groups in the 19th century multiethnic conglomerate states? Such states either didn’t have ethnic majorities, or people weren’t conceptualized in that manner. We use the term ‘ethnic minority’, to encompass migrants, national minorities and indigenous people. Some ethnic communities changed status from minority to majority, or vice versa. Estonians, Russians and Finns are examples of this. The countries discussed are Spain, the UK, Germany, Estonia, Russia, and the Nordic countries. Although many minorities live in transnational spaces, the frame of reference is the nation-state. Media markets are in many ways national spaces which affect the markets’ functional and institutional completeness, i.e. the range of media outlets, formats and genres (Moring 2007). Catalans, Basques, Finnish Swedes, and Tatars are examples of minorities with access to the widest range of alternatives. Others have few outlets and the content is primarily news and children’s programs. Some of the languages, such as Nivkh, Evenki, Saami, and Scottish Gaelic, are endangered or at risk. Small ethnic and linguistic communities have difficulty sustaining commercial media outlets. In such cases public service plays an important role.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Prague: CZECH-IN, s. r. o. , 2016. p. 114-114, article id PP 311
Keywords [en]
minority media, media history
National Category
Media Studies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158541ISBN: 978-80-906655-0-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-158541DiVA, id: diva2:1313011
Conference
6th European Communication Conference, Prague, Czech Republic, 9–12 November 2016
Available from: 2019-05-02 Created: 2019-05-02 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved

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Ellefson, Merja

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
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  • Other style
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  • de-DE
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