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Mindfulness Promotes a More Balanced Time Perspective: Correlational and Intervention-Based Evidence
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5726-4101
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
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2019 (English)In: Mindfulness, ISSN 1868-8527, E-ISSN 1868-8535, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 1579-1591Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: To investigate the relationship between mindfulness and aspects of time perspective (TP, i.e., habitual views of past, present, future).

Methods: We examined cross-sectional associations between an established measure of mindfulness (FFMQ) and an extended version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (Swedish ZTPI; S-ZTPI) in a sample with little experience of mindfulness training (n = 212). In addition, we evaluated the effects of two mindfulness-based interventions (a mindfulness instructor course involving 29 participants and a mindful self-compassion program, n = 40 for the intervention group, n = 41 for controls) on mindfulness and measures of TP including an aggregate measure of deviations from a proposed optimal, or balanced, time perspective (DBTP).

Results: Cross-sectional data were consistent with a model by which part of the relationship between mindfulness and perceived stress is mediated by reduced DBTP. Global mindfulness scores showed the strongest (negative) associations with the S-ZTPI scales Future Negative and Past Negative. Comparisons of pre/post-intervention data revealed significant mindfulness-based intervention-related reductions of DBTP (Cohen’s d = − 0.46), with lowered scores on Past Negative and Future Negative and a small increase on Past Positive.

Conclusions: The results support the notion that a higher level of mindfulness promotes a more balanced time perspective, with a reduced focus on negative aspects of the past and negative anticipations of the future. Relations to repetitive negative thought processes (rumination, worry) and a potential bidirectional influence of mindfulness and aspects of time perspective are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Springer, 2019. Vol. 10, no 8, p. 1579-1591
Keywords [en]
Mindfulness, Time perspective, Stress, MBI, Balanced time perspective
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158555DOI: 10.1007/s12671-019-01113-xISI: 000473450900011OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-158555DiVA, id: diva2:1313209
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-02199Available from: 2019-05-02 Created: 2019-05-02 Last updated: 2019-08-06Bibliographically approved

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Rönnlund, MichaelÅström, ElisabethCarelli, Maria Grazia

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