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Exemplar-effects in rule-based multiple-cue judgment under time pressure
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
Institutionen för psykologi, Uppsala Universitet.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The field of multiple-cue judgment focuses on the cognitive representations and processes involved in tasks where people need to integrate information across several cues into a judgment on a single criterion dimension. We present here an experimental approach to examine the influence of exemplar-based processes in human judgment, hypothesizing that a default exemplar-based process underlie judgment with emphasis on when cue-abstraction is discontinued. Using predictions from detailed cognitive models, we evaluate participants judgments on two tests with and without time pressure, after extensive learning with cue-abstraction. Results confirmed that participants were unable to use cue-abstraction under time pressure, but failed to confirm the expected shift to exemplar-based memory based on model fit on group level. Participants did however show typical behavioral markers for exemplar-based processes under time pressure, which emphasizes its likely contribution in the judgment process. Moreover, a large subsample of participants did show the expected shift to exemplar-based memory under time pressure. Nevertheless, the results provide novel insights to how exemplar-based processes influence cue-abstraction under time pressure, and open up for the idea of a default exemplar-based process in human judgment.

Keywords [en]
multiple-cue judgment, exemplar-based model, cue-abstraction model, time pressure, cognitive modelling
National Category
Applied Psychology Neurology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159171OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-159171DiVA, id: diva2:1316928
Available from: 2019-05-21 Created: 2019-05-21 Last updated: 2019-05-22
In thesis
1. Similarity-based processes in human multiple-cue judgment: evidence from brain imaging and cognitive modelling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Similarity-based processes in human multiple-cue judgment: evidence from brain imaging and cognitive modelling
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: We often make judgments that require the consideration of several sources of information. For example, a teacher that grades a student´s exam question often integrates multiple sources of information (cues: details provided in the answer) into a single criterion dimension (the grade). This is an example of a multiple-cue judgment: a continuous estimate based on multiple cues. One common idea in the literature is that people often utilize different memory representations during this kind of judgment process. People sometimes rely on rules, where they weigh the impact of different cues together in an additive linear way. At other times, people focus on the similarity between a probe and their experience of previous similar cases.  It has been proposed that similarity is an important organizing principle by which people make judgments, and that similarity always influence the judgment process to some degree. Behavioral methods with cognitive modelling (fitting cognitive models of rule-based and similarity-based processes to behavioral judgment data) have been used to test when people engage in either process, based on the classification of the better model fit. The brain networks that support human multiple-cue judgment could provide some answers to the role of similarity-based processes, but the existing knowledge on this topic is limited.  Here, I combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), cognitive modelling and experimental methods to extend previous behavioral research, and I focused on the nature of similarity in human multiple-cue judgment. I explored how the two types of memory representations are represented in the brain, if rule-based and similarity-based processes are exclusively engaged or operate as an interplay during the judgment process, and tested if similarity-based processes are the default process in rule-based judgment. 

Results: Study I investigated how the relationship between rule-based and similarity-based processes should be understood. The results revealed that a similarity-based process in the precuneus is shared between the two conditions: a key brain region for similarity-based processes is thus critical for human judgment. Study II further explored the precuneus role in similarity-based judgment learning, and demonstrated that the precuneus contribute to a mnemonic process related to storing and retrieving memory representations that are used for similarity comparison. Study III tested the influence of similarity-based processes in rule-based judgment when a learned rule could not be applied, and results suggested that similarity-based processes influenced rule-based behavior. 

Conclusion: These findings converge to the idea that similarity-based processes are critical for human multiple-cue judgment. Specifically, a similarity-based process in the precuneus, presumably involved in storage and retrieval of memory representations that are used for similarity comparison, stands out as a novel contribution to the neuroscience of human multiple-cue judgment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2019. p. 84
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 2044
Keywords
multiple-cue judgment, similarity-based, rule-based, exemplar-based model, fMRI, cognitive modelling
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159209 (URN)978-91-7855-085-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-06-14, Bio.A.206, Biologihuset, Flygel A, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-05-24 Created: 2019-05-21 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved

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Stillesjö, SaraKarlsson Wirebring, Linnea

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