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Concentration and reduction of antibiotic residues in selected wastewater treatment plants and receiving waterbodies in Durban, South Africa
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3949-7371
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2019 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 678, p. 10-20Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa the incidence of resistant tuberculosis, upper respiratory tract diseases as well as diarrhoeal and parasitic infections is high. Treatment of these diseases with antibiotics is partly reflected by the excretion of the respective antibiotics and their subsequent occurrence in wastewater. Their quantitative reduction in wastewater treatment reflects their potential environmental as well as human impact, the latter due to the use of the recipient water for domestic purposes and for irrigation. Information of the occurrence and reduction of different classes of antibiotics in wastewater treatment is sparse, especially the particle bound fraction of these. Due to this, analyses of aqueous and particle bound antibiotics in untreated wastewater of four selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and their receiving water bodies was carried out in Durban, South Africa. The treatment step especially considered was the biological one, represented by activated sludge and trickling filters. The treatment further included secondary clarifiers and final chlorine disinfection. Composite samples were collected during the period February 2017 to May 2017 and analysed with online solid phase extraction - high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (SPE-HPLC-MS). For the 13 assessed antibiotics, the limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.07 to 0.33 ng L-1 and 0.23 to 1.09 ng L-1 respectively, while the total percentage recovery was in the range of 51 to 111%. The percentage of individual antibiotics bound to the particulate fraction normally lost by sample (influent) filtration, if not analysed in parallel, was in the range of 2.6%-97.3% (n = 32). In this fraction (sludge from centrifuge sample), the concentration of bound antibiotics of all the target antibiotics were detected in the influent of all WWTP in concentration ranges between 1.3 ng L-1 (Azithromycin; AZI) to 81,748 ng(-1) (Ciprofloxacin; CIP). The antibiotics with the highest median concentrations in receiving water bodies of the respective WWTP were: Sulfamethoxazole; SUL (239 ng L-1) WWTP "K", Ciprofloxacin; CIP (708 ng L-1) WWTP "S" and Albendazole; ALB (325 ng L-1 and 683 ng L-1) WWTP "P" and "I" respectively.

The overall percentage removal efficiency for the four WWTPs ranged from 21% to 100%. The biological treatment steps, activated sludge and trickling filters, were effective in removing antibiotics especially with the trickling filter and the impact of the sedimentation stage after activated sludge treatment. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019. Vol. 678, p. 10-20
Keywords [en]
Wastewater, Antibiotics, Online SPE-LC/MS-MS, Microwave extraction
National Category
Water Treatment
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-160266DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.410ISI: 000468618900002PubMedID: 31075576OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-160266DiVA, id: diva2:1326338
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015 - 0334Available from: 2019-06-18 Created: 2019-06-18 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved

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