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On the combustion and photolytic degradation products of some brominated flame retardants
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
2003 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Produkter från förbrännings- och fotokemisk nedbrytning av vissa bromerade flamskyddsmedel (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

Many modern products, especially electronic goods, are protected by brominated flame retardants (BFR). Some of the most common flame retardants are polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). These compounds have been found in environmental samples and shown to have physiological effects on experimental animals. This thesis considers end-of-life aspects of brominated flame retardants. When spread in the environment, these compounds may be degraded into other forms. For example, if sludge contaminated with PBDE is used as an agricultural fertilizer, the PBDE could be degraded by sunlight to species of PBDE with lower degree of bromination and, to some extent, also form polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDF). In addition, PBDF and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDD) are formed during combustion of brominated flame retardants. When waste products with brominated flame retardants are co-combusted with household waste or other chlorinated fuel, polybrominated- chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBCDD) and polybrominated- chlorinated dibenzofurans (PBCDF)will be formed. The bromin/chlorine composition of dioxins and furans is dependent on the bromine/chlorine ratio in the fuel, but the types of brominated flame retardants that are being combusted is less important. In the studies reported here, bromine levels higher than "normal" for household waste has been used. The results show that there is a pronounced increase in total dioxin levels in fluegas when when bromine is present, implying that waste containing brominated flame retardants should only be incinerated at combustion plants with effecient air pollution control devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2003. , 54 p.
Keyword [en]
Environmental chemistry, PBCDD, PBCDF, PBDD, PBDF, PBDE, HBCD, TBBP-A, combustion, photolytic, MSW
Keyword [sv]
Miljökemi
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-107ISBN: 91-7305-516-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-107DiVA: diva2:140100
Public defence
2003-10-10, N320, Naturvetarhuset, Umeå, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2003-09-23 Created: 2003-09-23 Last updated: 2017-03-24Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Method for multiresidue determinateion of halogenated aromatics and PAHs in combustion-related samples
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Method for multiresidue determinateion of halogenated aromatics and PAHs in combustion-related samples
Show others...
2003 In: Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 37, 3680-3686 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-2204 (URN)
Available from: 2003-09-23 Created: 2003-09-23Bibliographically approved
2. PBCDD and PBCDF form incineration of waste containing brominated flame retardants
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PBCDD and PBCDF form incineration of waste containing brominated flame retardants
2002 In: Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 36, 1959-1964 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-2205 (URN)
Available from: 2003-09-23 Created: 2003-09-23Bibliographically approved
3. Formation of PBCDD and PBCDF during flue gas cooling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Formation of PBCDD and PBCDF during flue gas cooling
2004 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 38, no 3, 825-830 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The presence of bromine and chlorine in combustion, particularly in waste combustion, results in the formation of PBCDD and PBCDF. Formation pathways of PCDD/F are not fully understood, although much is known about them, and they are currently being further investigated. PBCDD/F is likely to be formed in reactions similar to those leading to PCDD/F, but the processes involved have been less intensively studied. In this study a fuel with bromine and chlorine in equal molar amounts was combusted in a pilot-scale fluid bed reactor and the cooling flue gas was sampled at 800, 350, and 250 C. Analysis revealed that levels of PBCDD and PBCDF increased between all sampling ports. The chlorine/bromine ratio also increased with reductions in temperature and increases in residence time for both PBCDD and PBCDF. However, the formation of PBCDD and PBCDF seems to follow different routes with respect to the level and pattern of halogenation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington: American Chemical Society (ACS), 2004
Keyword
dibenzo-para-dioxins, brominated flame retardants, P-dioxins, fly-ash, polybrominated dibenzofurans, phenoxy radicals, chlorine donors, BY-products, pyrolysis, combustion
National Category
Environmental Sciences Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-14840 (URN)10.1021/es035016e (DOI)000188656000036 ()
Available from: 2008-03-10 Created: 2008-03-10 Last updated: 2017-03-24Bibliographically approved
4. Fire of a flame retarded TV
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire of a flame retarded TV
1999 In: Organohalogen compounds, Vol. 41, 269-272 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-2207 (URN)
Available from: 2003-09-23 Created: 2003-09-23Bibliographically approved
5. Photolytic cebromination of decabromo diphenyl ether (DeBDE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Photolytic cebromination of decabromo diphenyl ether (DeBDE)
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-2208 (URN)
Available from: 2003-09-23 Created: 2003-09-23 Last updated: 2017-03-24Bibliographically approved

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