Functional aspects of wobble uridine modifications in yeast tRNA
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Transfer RNAs (tRNA) function as adaptor molecules in the translation of mRNA into protein. These adaptor molecules require modifications of a subset of their nucleosides for optimal function. The most frequently modified nucleoside in tRNA is position 34 (wobble position), and especially uridines present at this position. Modified nucleosides at the wobble position are important in the decoding process of mRNA, i.e., restriction or improvement of codon-anticodon interactions. This thesis addresses the functional aspects of the wobble uridine modifications.
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Elongator complex consisting of the six Elp1-Elp6 proteins has been proposed to participate in three distinct cellular processes; elongation of RNA polymerase II transcription, regulation of polarized exocytosis, and formation of modified wobble nucleosides in tRNA. In Paper I, we show that the phenotypes of Elongator deficient cells linking the complex to transcription and exocytosis are counteracted by increased level of and . These tRNAs requires the Elongator complex for formation of the 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl (mcmlnGUUGsmcm25tRNALysUUUsmcm25tRNA5) group of their modified wobble nucleoside 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine (mcm5s2U). Our results therefore indicate that the relevant function of the Elongator complex is in formation of modified nucleosides in tRNAs and the defects observed in exocytosis and transcription are indirectly caused by inefficient translation of mRNAs encoding gene products important for these processes.
The lack of defined mutants in eukaryotes has led to limited understanding about the role of the wobble uridine modifications in this domain of life. In Paper II, we utilized recently characterized mutants lacking the 2-thio (s2) or 5-carbamoylmethyl (ncm5) and mcm5 groups to address the in vivo function of eukaryotic wobble uridine modifications. We show that ncm5 and mcm5 side-chains promote reading of G-ending codons, and that presence of a mcm5 and an s2 group cooperatively improves reading of both A- and G-ending codons.
Previous studies revealed that a S. cerevisiae strain deleted for any of the six Elongator subunit genes shows resistance towards a toxin (zymocin) secreted by the dairy yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. In Paper III, we show that the cytotoxic γ subunit of zymocin is a tRNA endonuclease that target the anticodon of mcm5s2U34 containing tRNAs and that the wobble mcm5 modification is required for efficient cleavage. This explains the γ-toxin resistant phenotype of Elongator mutants which are defective in the synthesis of the mcm5 group.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet) , 2007. , 53 p.
Doctoral thesis / Umeå University, Department of Molecular Biology
Molecular biology, Transfer RNA, Modified nucleosides, Elongator complex, Translation, Kluyveromyces lactis γ-toxin
Research subject Molecular Biology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-1093ISBN: 978-91-7264-302-4OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-1093DiVA: diva2:140167
2007-05-16, Major Groove, 6L, Umeå University, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Anderson, James T., Prof.
Byström, Anders, Prof.
List of papers