Fate of Cu, Cr and As during combustion of impregnated wood with and without peat additive
2007 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 41, no 18, 6534-6540 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The EU Directive on incineration of waste regulates the harmful emissions of particles and twelve toxic elements, including copper, chromium, and arsenic. More information is critically needed on the speciation and behavior of these trace elements during combustion, including the effects of different process variables, as well as of different fuels and fuel mixtures. Using a 15 kW pellets-fueled grate burner, experiments were performed to determine the fate of copper, chromium, and arsenic during combustion of chromate copper arsenate (CCA) preservative wood. The effects of co-combustion of CCA-wood with peat were also studied since peat fuels previously have proved to generally reduce ash related problems. The fate and speciation of copper, chromium, and arsenic were determined from analysis of the flue gas particles and the bottom ash using SEM-EDS, XRD, XPS, and ICP-AES. In addition, chemical equilibrium model calculations were performed to interpret the experimental findings. The results revealed that about 5% copper, 15% chromium, and 60% arsenic were volatilized during combustion of pure CCA-wood, which is lower than predicted volatilization from the individual arsenic, chromium, and copper oxides. This is explained by the formation of more stable refractory complex oxide phases for which the stability trends and patterns are presented. When co-combusted with peat, an additional stabilization of these phases was obtained and thus a small but noteworthy decrease in volatilization of all three elements was observed. The major identified phases for all fuels were CuCrO2(s), (Fe,Mg,Cu)(Cr,Fe,Al)O4(s), Cr2O3(s), and Ca3(AsO4)2(s). Arsenic was also identified in the fine particles as KH2AsO4(s) and As2O3(s). A strong indication of hexavalent chromium in the form of K2CrO4 or as a solid solution between K3Na(CrO4)2 and K3Na(SO4)2 was found in the fine particles. Good qualitative agreement was observed between experimental data and chemical equilibrium model calculations.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society , 2007. Vol. 41, no 18, 6534-6540 p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-2362DOI: 10.1021/es0630689OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-2362DiVA: diva2:140321