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The stone brusher, a new sampler for submerged epilithic material in shallow streams and lakes
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
2006 (English)In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 560, no 1, 385-392 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Stone Brusher is designed to take qualitative or semi-quantitative samples of material attached tostones at 7–50 cm depth in running or stagnant waters. The epilithic material is dislodged from the stonesurface with a rotating brush enclosed in a chamber and the material is drawn up directly into the samplebottle with an air-cylinder. The operator takes a sample quickly and without putting hands into the water.The sampling area is about 28 cm2. The sampler is made of plastic, stainless steel and aluminium andweighs 3.1 kg. The equipment is robust and easily handled and it is constructed to meet the demand forstandardized sampling for research and environmental monitoring and to improve working conditions forsampling personnel. The equipment allows sampling from bedrock and large stones that cannot be liftedfrom the bottom and it can be used for reliable sampling also in fast-flowing streams where the dislodgedmaterial is easily flushed away. Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and diatom analyses, this new sampler isevaluated in comparison to the recognized toothbrush method, which indicates that the Stone Brusherreduces sampling variability compared with the toothbrush method.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Hague: Junk , 2006. Vol. 560, no 1, 385-392 p.
Keyword [en]
algae, environmental monitoring, epilithic, lakes, sampler, streams
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-2420DOI: 10.1007/s10750-005-1514-5OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-2420DiVA: diva2:140403
Available from: 2007-05-22 Created: 2007-05-22 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Stream monitoring using near-infrared spectroscopy of epilithic material
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stream monitoring using near-infrared spectroscopy of epilithic material
2007 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD), with initiatives to manage surface water resources, has increased the need for fast and inexpensive methods for monitoring conditions in streams. The objective of this thesis is to assess the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of epilithic material to become such method. NIRS, which is a technique that is commonly used in industry for process monitoring and quality control of products, registers the chemical properties of organic material on a molecular level. Epilithic material, i.e. the layer of dead and alive material that covers stone surfaces in streams, is continuously influenced by the stream water that flows over it, and it has the potential to integrate chemical and biological conditions over time. The temporal integration is a significant factor, since conditions in streams can change within hours or days. The thesis consists of two published papers. In the first paper a new sampler for epilithic material, the Stone Brusher, was described and the performance evaluated. The Stone Brusher is designed to take qualitative or semi-quantitative samples of epilithic material from stones at 7–50 cm water depth. The epilithic material is dislodged from the stone surface with a rotating brush enclosed in a chamber, and the material is drawn up directly into the sample bottle with an air-cylinder. The operator takes a sample quickly and without putting hands into the water. The sampler is made of plastic, stainless steel and aluminium and weighs 3.1 kg. It is designed to meet the demand for standardized sampling for research and environmental monitoring and to improve working conditions for sampling personnel. The equipment allows sampling from surfaces of bedrock and large stones that cannot be lifted from the bottom. Using data of near-infrared spectroscopy and diatom analyses, this new sampler was evaluated in comparison to the toothbrush method, a primitive method which is the current standard in EU. The results indicate that the Stone Brusher reduces sampling variability compared with the toothbrush method.

In the second paper, the Stone Brusher was used to collect epilithic material from 65 sites (42 uncontaminated and 23 contaminated) from streams in the widespread mining area called the Skellefte-district in Västerbotten, northern Sweden, in order to test the hypothesis that impact on the epilithic material caused by emissions from mining and mining-related industries can be detected using NIRS. The epilithic material was filtered onto glass fibre filters, measured by NIRS, and the results were modelled using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The NIRS approach was evaluated by comparing it with the results of chemical and diatom analyses of the same samples. Based on PCA, the NIRS data distinguished contaminated from uncontaminated sites and performed slightly better than chemical analyses and clearly better than diatom analyses. Of the streams designated a priori as contaminated, 74 % were identified as contaminated by NIRS, 65 % by chemical analysis and 26 % by diatom analysis. Unlike chemical analyses of water or of epilithic material samples, NIRS data reflect biological impacts in the streams. Given that, and the simplicity of NIRS-analyses, further studies to assess the use of NIRS of epilithic material are justified. NIRS has the potential to become a fast method for screening in regions where large numbers of streams occur to find impacted streams or as a routine method for temporal monitoring in selected streams for early detection of environmental impact, similar to process monitoring in industry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap, 2007. 9 p.
Keyword
Streams, environmental monitoring, Water Framework Directive, water quality, biological impact, epilithic material, near-infrared spectroscopy, diatoms
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-1154 (URN)978-91-7264-340-6 (ISBN)
Presentation
2007-06-01, KB3A9, lilla hörsalen, KBC, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 10:00
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-05-22 Created: 2007-05-22Bibliographically approved

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