umu.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Memory for scenes: refixations reflect retrieval
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
2007 (English)In: Memory & Cognition, ISSN 0090-502X, ISSN 1532-5946 (electronic), Vol. 35, no 7, 1664-1674 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Most conceptions of episodic memory hold that reinstatement of encoding operations is essential for retrieval success, but the specific mechanisms of retrieval reinstatement are not well understood. In three experiments, we used saccadic eye movements as a window for examining reinstatement in scene recognition. In Experiment 1, participants viewed complex scenes, while number of study fixations was controlled by using a gaze-contingent paradigm. In Experiment 2, effects of stimulus saliency were minimized by directing participants’ eye movements during study. At test, participants made remember/know judgments for each recognized stimulus scene. Both experiments showed that remember responses were associated with more consistent study-test fixations than false rejections (Experiments 1 and 2) and know responses (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, we examined the causal role of gaze consistency on retrieval by manipulating participants’ expectations during recognition. After studying name and scene pairs, each test scene was preceded by the same or different name as during study. Participants made more consistent eye movements following a matching, rather than mismatching, scene name. Taken together, these findings suggest that explicit recollection is a function of perceptual reconstruction and that event memory influences gaze control in this active reconstruction process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EBSCO , 2007. Vol. 35, no 7, 1664-1674 p.
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-2443OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-2443DiVA: diva2:140449
Available from: 2007-06-12 Created: 2007-06-12 Last updated: 2011-06-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Predictive eyes precede retrieval: visual recognition as hypothesis testing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predictive eyes precede retrieval: visual recognition as hypothesis testing
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Does visual recognition entail verifying an idea about what is perceived? This question was addressed in the three studies of this thesis. The main hypothesis underlying the investigation was that visual recognition is an active process involving hypothesis testing. Recognition of faces (Study 1), scenes (Study 2) and objects (Study 3) was investigated using eye movement registration as a window on the recognition process. In Study 1, a functional relationship between eye movements and face recognition was established. Restricting the eye movements reduced recognition performance. In addition, perceptual reinstatement as indicated by eye movement consistency across study and test was related to recollective experience at test. Specifically, explicit recollection was related to higher eye movement consistency than familiarity-based recognition and false rejections (Studies 1-2). Furthermore, valid expectations about a forthcoming stimulus scene produced eye movements which were more similar to those of an earlier study episode, compared to invalid expectations (Study 2). In Study 3 participants recognized fragmented objects embedded in nonsense fragments. Around 8 seconds prior to explicit recognition, participants began to fixate the object region rather than a similar control region in the stimulus pictures. Before participants’ indicated awareness of the object, they fixated it with an average of 9 consecutive fixations. Hence, participants were looking at the object as if they had recognized it before they became aware of its identity. Furthermore, prior object information affected eye movement sampling of the stimulus, suggesting that semantic memory was involved in guiding the eyes during object recognition even before the participants were aware of its presence. Collectively, the studies support the view that gaze control is instrumental to visual recognition performance and that visual recognition is an interactive process between memory representation and information sampling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Psykologi, 2007. 58 p.
Series
Umeå studies in cognitive science, ISSN 1654-2568 ; 2
Keyword
declarative memory, face perception, object recognition, scene recognition, eye movements, visual awareness, recollection, familiarity
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-1179 (URN)978-91-7264-347-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-09-14, NBVH 1031, Norra Beteendevetarhuset, Umeå Universitet, S-901 87, Umeå, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-06-12 Created: 2007-06-12 Last updated: 2011-03-08Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=475CB0D45185A6E621B3

Authority records BETA

Holm, LinusMäntylä, Timo

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Holm, LinusMäntylä, Timo
By organisation
Department of Psychology
In the same journal
Memory & Cognition
Psychology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

urn-nbn

Altmetric score

urn-nbn
Total: 68 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf